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A Division-of-Labor Hypothesis: Adaptations to Task Structure in Multiple-Cue Judgment
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Judgments that demand consideration of pieces of information in the environment occur repeatedly throughout our lives. One professional example is that of a physician that considers multiple symptoms to make a judgment about a patient’s disease. The scientific study of such, so called, multiple-cue judgments that involve multiple pieces of information (cues: e.g., symptoms) and continuous criterion (e.g., blood pressure) has been concerned with the statistical modelling of judgment data (see Brehmer, 1994; Cooksey, 1996; Hammond & Stewart, 2001). In this thesis behavioural experiments, cognitive modelling and brain imaging is used to investigate an adaptive division of labor between multiple memory representations in multiple-cue judgment. It is hypothesized that the additive, independent linear effect of each cue can be explicitly abstracted and integrated by a serial, additive judgment process (Einhorn, Kleinmuntz, & Kleinmuntz, 1979). It is further hypothesized that a variety of sophisticated task properties, like non-additive cue combination, nonlinear relations, and inter-cue correlation, are carried implicitly by exemplar-memory (Medin & Schaffer, 1978; Nosofsky, 1984; Nosofsky & Johansen, 2000). Study I and II investigates the effect of additive versus non-additive cue-combination and verify the predicted shift in cognitive representations as a function of the underlying cue-combination rule. The third study is a review that discusses the nature of these representational shifts; are they contingent upon early perceived learning performance instead of automatic and error-driven? Study IV verifies that this shift is evident also in the neural activity associated with making judgments in additive and non-additive tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Psykologi , 2007. , 76 p.
Series
Umeå studies in cognitive science, ISSN 1654-2568 ; 1654-2568 3
Keyword [en]
multiple-cue judgment, exemplar models, cue abstraction, cue-combination rule
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1327ISBN: 978-91-7264-390-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1327DiVA: diva2:140659
Public defence
2007-09-21, Bt102, Beteendevetarhuset, 901 87, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2009-11-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Information Integration in Multiple-Cue Judgment: A Division of Labor Hypothesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information Integration in Multiple-Cue Judgment: A Division of Labor Hypothesis
2008 (English)In: Cognition, Vol. 106, no 1, 259-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2498 (URN)
Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2010-10-07Bibliographically approved
2. Adaptive Changes between Cue-Abstraction and Exemplar Memory in a Multiple-Cue Judgment Task with Continuous Cues
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Changes between Cue-Abstraction and Exemplar Memory in a Multiple-Cue Judgment Task with Continuous Cues
2007 (English)In: Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, Vol. 14, no 6, 1140-1146 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2499 (URN)
Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2010-10-07Bibliographically approved
3. Exemplar-based inference in multi-attribute decision making: contingent, not automatic, strategy shifts?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exemplar-based inference in multi-attribute decision making: contingent, not automatic, strategy shifts?
2008 (English)In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 3, no 3, 244-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several studies propose that exemplar retrieval contributes to multi-attribute decisions. The authors have proposed a process theory enabling a priori predictions of what cognitive representations people use as input to their judgment process (Sigma, for “summation”; P. Juslin, L. Karlsson, & H. Olsson, 2008). According to Sigma, exemplar retrieval is a back-up system when the task does not allow for additive and linear abstraction and integration of cue-criterion knowledge (e.g., when the task is non-additive). An important question is to what extent such shifts occur spontaneously as part of automatic procedures, such as error-minimization with the Delta rule, or if they are controlled strategy shifts contingent on the ability to identify a sufficiently successful judgment strategy. In this article data are reviewed thatdemonstrate a shift between exemplar memory and cue abstraction, as well as data where the expected shift does not occur. In contrast to a common assumption of previous models, these results suggest a controlled and contingent strategy shift.

Keyword
exemplar memory, cue abstraction, strategy shifts, multi-attribute decisions, Sigma
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-23012 (URN)
Available from: 2009-05-26 Created: 2009-05-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13
4. Different neural systems underlie multiple-cue judgment depending on the cue-combination rule
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different neural systems underlie multiple-cue judgment depending on the cue-combination rule
(English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2501 (URN)
Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2011-01-27Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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