Angiopoietin-like protein 4: an unfolding chaperone regulating lipoprotein lipase activity
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the main enzyme hydrolyzing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in plasma. Proteoglycan-bound LPL on the vascular endothelium represent the functional pool of active enzyme. LPL is regulated in a tissue specific manner according to metabolic demands. Rapid regulation of LPL activity is necessary to provide free fatty acids for storage or energy production. This regulatory mechanism appears to be post-translational and requires synthesis of other protein/proteins. Recently it was demonstrated that angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in the metabolism of plasma triglycerides and that it is able to inhibit LPL activity in vitro. These properties were linked to the N-terminal coiled-coil domain of ANGPTL4 (ccd-ANGPTL4), but the mechanism for the inhibition was not known.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the molecular mechanism for inhibition of LPL by ccd-ANGPTL4, to characterize regions in ccd-ANGPTL4 that are important for inactivation of LPL and to study the role of ANGPTL4 for regulation of LPL in vivo.
Binding of ccd-ANGPTL4 to LPL was demonstrated by several methods, including surface plasmon resonance. The interaction was transient and resulted in conversion of the enzyme from catalytically active dimers to inactive monomers with decreased affinity for heparin. We have shown that ANGPTL4 mRNA in rat adipose tissue turns over rapidly and that changes in the ANGPTL4 mRNA abundance were inversely correlated to LPL activity, both during the fed to fasted and the fasted to fed transitions. We conclude that ANGPTL4 is a fasting-induced controller of LPL in adipose tissue, acting extracellularly on the native conformation of LPL in an unusual fashion, like an unfolding molecular chaperone.
Site directed mutagenesis was used to explore regions in ccd-ANGPTL4 important for inactivation of LPL, and for binding of ANGPTL4 to heparin. Others had shown that ccd-ANGPTL4 forms higher oligomers. Structure prediction analyses demonstrated that the coiled-coil domain of ccd-ANGPTL4 probably forms three consecutive α-helices with strong hydrophobic faces, and that there are clusters of positively charged residues both on the helices and in intervening sequences. We made replacements of hydrophobic residues, positively charged residues, cysteine residues and negatively charged residues in ccd-ANGPTL4. In addition, helix-breaking proline residues were introduced in all three helices. We found that hydrophobic residues are important for oligomer formation. The higher oligomers appeared to be stabilized by disulfide bonds, but cysteines are not crucial for oligomerization. Introduction of Pro-residues in the first and second helix prevented formation of higher oligomers and reduced the ability of ccd-ANGPTL4 to inactivate LPL. We found that negatively charged residues in ccd-ANGPTL4 are important for inactivation of LPL. A heparin binding site was localized in the C-terminal end of ccd-ANGPTL4 (amino acid residues 114-140).
To investigate whether LPL is differently processed in different depots of adipose tissue we measured the levels of LPL mRNA, protein and activity in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue in human subjects undergoing elective surgery. Our results show that, although the expression level of LPL was higher in subcutaneous adipose tissue, the specific LPL activity (ratio of activity over the LPL protein mass) was higher in omental adipose tissue. Interestingly, the levels of ANGPTL4 mRNA were lower in omental compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue in most of the studied subjects. This difference can possibly explain the higher specific activity of LPL in omental adipose tissue and indicated that ANGPTL4 is involved in regulation of LPL activity also in humans.
LPL produced by macrophages in the artery wall promotes local accumulation of lipids in these cells, and thereby plays an important role in development of atherosclerosis. The known association between type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis forwarded us to study production of LPL by THP-1 macrophages under hyperglycemic conditions and under treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) agonist (GW501516). We found that LPL activity (but not LPL mass) produced by macrophages was decreased by GW501516. The loss of LPL activity coincided with increased level of ANGPTL4 mRNA, indicating that the agonist regulates LPL activity through expression of ANGPTL4. This effect was even more pronounced in cells grown under hyperglycemic conditions. Our data suggest that a suitable PPARδ agonist, like GW501516, may have protective effects against development of atherosclerosis in subjects with diabetes type 2.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Medicinsk biovetenskap , 2007. , 50 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1115
Lipoprotein lipase, angiopoietin-like protein 4, protein folding, human adipose tissue, macrophages, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ)
Microbiology in the medical area
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1343ISBN: 978-91-7264-359-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1343DiVA: diva2:140712
2007-09-28, Föreläsningssal D, 1D, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Kjellen, Lena, Professor
Olivecrona, Gunilla, Professor
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