Specification of the lens and olfactory placodes and dorsoventral patterning of the telencephalon
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The vertebrate nervous system is a highly complex and intriguing structure with diverse functions. To understand the functional nervous system, we first have to be aware of how it is assembled during development. In this thesis the mechanism of early diversification and regionalisation necessary for subsequent formation of part of the nervous system, namely the telencephalon and the placodes, will be addressed. We have identified signalling molecules involved in the dorsoventral patterning of the telencephalon and we propose a mechanism for the induction and differential specification of the olfactory and lens placodes.
The telencephalon is regionalised along the dorsoventral axis during development. The cells situated dorsally will give rise to the cerebral cortex while the ventral and intermediate cells are mainly progenitors for the basal ganglia. The cerebral cortex is associated with higher cognitive functions whereas the basal ganglia control movements. We provide evidence that dorsal and intermediate telencephalic cells are re-specified from cells with an intrinsic ventral character. Dorsal telencephalic cells are specified at stage 10 in chick, while the intermediate cells are specified a few hours later, at stage 14. The expression of Wnt and Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) coincides with the time point when the dorsal cells are specified, and we provide evidence that Wnt and FGF signals act in a sequential way to specify dorsal telencephalic cells. The retinoic acid (RA) synthesising enzyme Raldh3 is expressed in proximity to the telencephalon, and our result suggests that RA is both required and sufficient to induce intermediate telencephalic cell types. Additionally, Fgf8 is expressed in the anterior neural ridge and the ventral telencephalic cells require FGF signals that oppose RA to maintain their character.
The olfactory and lens placodes contribute to the special sense organs associated with olfaction and vision, respectively. Olfactory and lens placodes are specified at gastrula stage in chick, and become spatially separated at the neural fold stage. We provide evidence that Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling is required for the induction of a pool of placodal progenitor cells. Furthermore, time of exposure to BMP signals plays a key role in the differential specification of the olfactory and lens placodes, where continued exposure to BMP signals promotes lens character at the expense of olfactory placodal cells.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM) , 2007. , 77 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1119
telencephalon, olfactory, lens, BMP, RA, FGF, Wnt, development, placode, gradient, chick, nervous system, dorsoventral
Research subject Developmental Neurosciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1347ISBN: 978-91-7264-376-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1347DiVA: diva2:140719
2007-10-05, Major Groove, 6L, NUS, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Partanen, Juha, Doktor
List of papers