Thermal degradation of PCDD/F in municipal solid waste ashes in sealed glass ampules
2005 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 10, 3872-3877 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Due to their high concentrations of toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), metals, and water-soluble salts, fly ashes are classified as hazardous waste in the European Union and are required to be deposited in controlled landfills. We have shown here that the tetra- to octachlorinated PCDD/F in fly ash can be degraded by thermal treatment. The temperature needed for total degradation of PCDD/F depends on the composition of the fly ash. Its concentrations of unburned carbon and alkaline compounds were found to be important in this respect. Experimental design was used to investigate the effects of varying the temperature, residence time, and atmosphere on the degradation of PCDD/F in three different types of fly ash. The results showed that the three ashes clearly showed different degradation potentials for PCDD/F during thermal treatment. The concentrations of unburned carbon, alkaline species such as CaO and Na2O, and metals such as copper and iron strongly influenced the degradation of PCDD/F. However, the different combinations of pH and amounts of native PCDD/F, unburned carbon, metals (Cu, Fe, Sn and Na), and sulfur in the ashes made it difficult or even impossible to conclude that any single parameter was responsible for the degradation of PCDD/F in these thermal treatment experiments. The decreases observed in all of the experiments are due to dechlorination and/or destruction of PCDD/F: depending on the temperature and ash composition, either of these processes may be the more important.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society , 2005. Vol. 39, no 10, 3872-3877 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2646DOI: 10.1021/es0485513OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-2646DiVA: diva2:140872