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Rarity in boreal stream: patterns, causes and consequences
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Patterns of site occupancy among boreal stream insects were studied in central Sweden with focus on sparsely distributed species and the role of dispersal and niche limitations.

In the study of dispersal limitation, I found that effects of an extraordinarily harsh winter in small to medium-sized streams were strongest in sites located in small streams and far from lake outlets. Species richness and the total abundance of macroinvertebrates and trout returned to pre-disturbance levels after three years. However, some species showed slow recolonization and the proportion of holoaquatic taxa was still reduced after three years. In a second study, I found a positive correlation between site occupancy in stream caddisflies and morphological traits associated with fast and energy-efficient flight, whereas specialized spring caddisflies showed a negative correlation to these traits compared to stream species. This suggested that streams, but not springs, select for strong dispersal ability in caddisflies. In a survey of springs in central Sweden, hydrogeology was found to be a useful predictor of the occurrence of spring specialists. Two of these, Crunoecia irrorata Curtis and Parachiona picicornis (Pictet), were found exclusively in glaciofluvial springs, characterized by a stable discharge and temperature. Less specialized members of the spring fauna (i.e. species also occurring in streams, ponds or lakes) also occurred in moraine and limestone springs characterized by more unstable conditions.

Niche limitations were studied by contrasting large-scale distributions of closely related rare and common stoneflies. Differences in temperature requirements in the juvenile stages and life cycles suggested that the rare species, Isogenus nubecula Newman, was restricted by a limited tolerance to low stream temperatures, whereas the two common species, Isoperla grammatica (Poda) and Diura nanseni (Kempny), appeared to have a broader tolerance to climatic conditions in the study area. In a second study of niche limitations, macroinvertebrate assemblages in 88 streams in Central Sweden showed a nested distribution pattern. Most species deviating from expected distributions occurred in small streams, indicating competitive exclusion from species-rich sites, predator avoidance, or specialization to unique habitat features of small streams. In the last paper, the longitudinal distribution of filter-feeding caddisflies in a lake-outlet stream demonstrated patterns concordant to feeding specialization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. , 23 p.
Keyword [en]
Ecology, Central Sweden, site occupancy, dispersal limitation, natural disturbances, recolonization, flight-morphology, metapopulation, habitat stability, spring specialists, Crunoecia irrorata, niche limitation, Isogenus nubecula, nestedness, longitudinal distribution
Keyword [sv]
Ekologi
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142ISBN: 91-7305-529-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-142DiVA: diva2:140983
Public defence
2003-11-28, Lilla hörsalen, KBC-huset, Umeå, 13:00
Opponent
Available from: 2003-11-07 Created: 2003-11-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effects of an extraordinarily harsh winter on macroinvertebrates and fish in boreal streams.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of an extraordinarily harsh winter on macroinvertebrates and fish in boreal streams.
2003 In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, ISSN 0003-9136, Vol. 157, 505–523- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2724 (URN)
Available from: 2003-11-07 Created: 2003-11-07Bibliographically approved
2. Morphometric variation, dispersal ability and distribution in adult caddisflies.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphometric variation, dispersal ability and distribution in adult caddisflies.
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2725 (URN)
Available from: 2003-11-07 Created: 2003-11-07Bibliographically approved
3. The macroinvertebrate fauna and hydrogeology of springs in central Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The macroinvertebrate fauna and hydrogeology of springs in central Sweden.
2000 In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, Vol. 436, no 1-3, 91-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2726 (URN)
Available from: 2003-11-07 Created: 2003-11-07Bibliographically approved
4. Rarity and commonness in three perlodid stoneflies.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rarity and commonness in three perlodid stoneflies.
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2727 (URN)
Available from: 2003-11-07 Created: 2003-11-07 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
5. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness, community structure and nestedness in Swedish streams.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness, community structure and nestedness in Swedish streams.
2000 In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, ISSN 0003-9136, Vol. 150, 29-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2728 (URN)
Available from: 2003-11-07 Created: 2003-11-07Bibliographically approved
6. Distribution of filter-feeding caddisflies (Trichoptera) and plankton drift in a Swedish lake-outlet stream.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution of filter-feeding caddisflies (Trichoptera) and plankton drift in a Swedish lake-outlet stream.
1999 In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, Vol. 33, no 4, 377-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2729 (URN)
Available from: 2003-11-07 Created: 2003-11-07Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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