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Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
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2009 (English)In: Transfusion, ISSN 0041-1132, E-ISSN 1537-2995, Vol. 49, no 2, 347-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umea, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. RESULTS: The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. CONCLUSION: These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 49, no 2, 347-353 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2756DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01951.xPubMedID: 18980621OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-2756DiVA: diva2:141017
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Carbon monoxide in biological systems: An experimental and clinical study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon monoxide in biological systems: An experimental and clinical study
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, but it is also produced endogenously when haem is degraded. When produced in vivo, CO is believed to have positive biological effects. For example it activates the production of cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate and causes vasodilatation. CO is also believed to have anti-inflammatory properties by binding to Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. Several studies in cells, mice and rats support this opinion regarding both the circulatory as well as the anti-inflammatory properties. However, studies in larger animals regarding circulatory effects have demonstrated contradictory results. The only study in humans regarding anti-inflammatory properties of CO could not demonstrate such effects.

Methods: This thesis consists of four different models. In paper I a method for analysis of CO in blood was developed using gas chromatography. In paper II a porcine model was used to investigate the elimination time for CO. The pigs in paper II had a high concentration of CO administered via blood, and CO concentrations were followed over time and kinetically parameters calculated. Circulatory parameters were also measured to evaluate if there were any circulatory changes after CO administration. In paper III CO´s anti-inflammatory properties were investigated in an endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory model in pigs. Paper III was a randomized study where one group inhaled CO and the other group served as controls. Plasma cytokine concentrations were measured and followed over time as an indication of the inflammatory state. In paper IV, CO concentrations in blood from blood donors at the Blood Centre in Umeå were investigated. The blood donors also completed a questionnaire about age, smoking history and other possible sources for exogenous contamination of CO in the blood.

Results and conclusions: In paper I we developed a method suitable for analysis of low concentrations of CO in blood. The half-life of CO at levels of 250 µM in pigs was found to be 60 minutes. CO did not show anti-inflammatory effects after an endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation in pigs. In banked blood CO was present at concentrations up to six times higher than normal concentrations. This could be a risk when transfusing such blood to susceptible patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, 2007. 42 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1134
Keyword
Carbon monoxide, physiological effects, systemic inflammation, analytical method, blood, exhaled air, pharmacokinetics, cigarette smoking, blood donation, cytokines
National Category
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1427 (URN)978-91-7264-431-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-11-30, Sal B, 9tr, Tandläkarhögskolan, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
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Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-09-25Bibliographically approved

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