umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Diatoms as indicators of Holocene climate and environmental change in northern Sweden
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of the thesis was to explore the potential of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) as indicators of Holocene climate and environmental change in northern Sweden (Abisko region, 68°21'N, 18°49'E). A modern surface-sediment calibration set including 100 lakes was developed and lake-water pH, sedimentary organic content (assessed by loss-on-ignition) and temperature were identified as most powerful environmental variables explaining the variance within the diatom assemblages. Transfer functions based on unimodal species response models (WA-PLS) were developed for lake-water pH and mean July air temperature (July T), yielding coefficients of determination of 0.77 and 0.70, and prediction errors based on leave-one-out cross-validation of 0.19 pH units and 0.96 °C for lake-water pH and July T, respectively. The transfer functions were validated with monitoring data covering two open-water seasons (lake-water pH) and meteorological records covering the 20th century (July T). The good agreement between diatom-based inferences and measured monitoring data confirmed the prediction ability of the developed transfer functions.

Analysing a Holocene sediment core from a lake nearby Abisko (Vuoskkujávri), diatoms infer a linearly decreasing July T trend (1.5 °C) since 6,000 cal. BP, which compares well with inferences based on chironomids and pollen from the same sediment core. The lake-water pH inference shows a pattern of moderate natural acidification (c. 0.5 pH units) since the early Holocene, reaching present-day pH values at c. 5,000 cal. BP. By fitting fossil diatom samples to the modern calibration set by means of residual distance assessment within canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), the early Holocene (between 10,600 and 6,000 cal. BP) was identified as a problematic time-period for diatom-based inferences and, consequently, reconstructions during this period are tentative. Pollen-based inferences also show 'poor' fit between 10,600 and 7,500 cal. BP and chironomids probably provide the most reliable July T reconstruction at Vuoskkujávri, with 'poor' fit only during the initial part of the Holocene (between 10,600 and 10,250 cal. BP).

Possible factors confounding diatom-based July T inferences were investigated. Using detrended CCA (DCCA), Holocene sediment sequences from five lakes indicate that during the early Holocene, mainly physical factors such as high minerogenic erosion rates, high temperature and low light availability may have regulated diatom assemblages, favouring Fragilaria species. In all five lakes, diatom assemblages developed in a directional manner, but timing and scale of development differed substantially between lakes. The differences are attributed primarily to the geological properties of the lake catchments (with strong effects on lake-water pH), but other factors such as climatic change, vegetation, hydrologic setting and in-lake processes appear to regulate diatom communities in each lake differently. The influence of long-term natural acidification on diatom assemblages progressively declined during the Holocene with corresponding increase of the influence of climatic factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Ekologi och geovetenskap , 2001. , 19 p.
Keyword [en]
Physical geography and sedimentology, diatoms, Holocene, paleolimnology, climate change, lake sediments, transfer functions, quantitative environmental reconstructions, northern Sweden, Abisko
Keyword [sv]
Naturgeografi och sedimentologi
National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144ISBN: 91-7305-134-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-144DiVA: diva2:141073
Public defence
2001-12-06, Umeå, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2001-11-01 Created: 2001-11-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Diatoms as indicators of climatic and limnological change in Swedish Lapland: A 100-lake calibration set and its validation for paleoecological reconstructions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diatoms as indicators of climatic and limnological change in Swedish Lapland: A 100-lake calibration set and its validation for paleoecological reconstructions
2002 (English)In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 27, no 1, 97-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the distribution of subfossil diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of 100 lakes along steep ecological and climatic gradients in northernmost Sweden (Abisko region, 67.07degrees N to 68.48degrees N latitude, 17.67degrees E to 23.52degrees E longitude) to develop and cross-validate transfer functions for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Of 19 environmental variables determined for each site, 15 were included in the statistical analysis. Lake-water pH (8.0%), sedimentary loss-on-ignition (LOI, 5.9%) and estimated mean July air temperature (July T, 4.8%) explained the greatest amounts of variation in the distribution of diatom taxa among the 100 lakes. Temperature and pH optima and tolerances were calculated for abundant taxa. Transfer functions, based on WA-PLS (weighted averaging partial least squares), were developed for pH (r(2) = 0.77, root-mean-square-error of prediction (RMSEP) = 0.19 pH units, maximum bias = 0.31, as assessed by leave-one-out cross-validation) based on 99 lakes and for July T (r(2) = 0.75, RMSEP = 0.96 degreesC, max. bias = 1.37 degreesC) based on the full 100 lake set. We subsequently assessed the ability of the diatom transfer functions to estimate lake-water pH and July T using a form of independent cross-validation. To do this, the 100-lake set was divided in two subsets. An 85-lake training-set (based on single limnological measurements) was used to develop transfer functions with similar performance as those based on the full 100 lakes, and a 15-lake test-set (with 2 years of monthly limnological measurements throughout the ice-free seasons) was used to test the transfer functions developed from the 85-lake training-set. Results from the intra-set cross-validation exercise demonstrated that lake-specific prediction errors (RMSEP) for the 15-lake test-set corresponded closely with the median measured values (pH) and the estimations based on spatial interpolations of data from weather stations (July T). The prediction errors associated with diatom inferences were usually within the range of seasonal and interannual variability. Overall, our results confirm that diatoms can provide reliable and robust estimates of lake-water pH and July T, that WA-PLS is a robust calibration method and that long-term environmental data are needed for further improvement of paleolimnological transfer functions.

Keyword
Northern Fennoscandia, Abisko, diatoms, lake sediments, pH, temperature, training-set, transfer functions, weighted averaging partial least squares regression (WA-PLS), intra-set cross-validation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2795 (URN)10.1023/A:1013562325326 (DOI)000173086500008 ()
Available from: 2001-11-01 Created: 2001-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Diatoms as quantitative indicators of July temperature: a century-scale validation with meteorological data from northern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diatoms as quantitative indicators of July temperature: a century-scale validation with meteorological data from northern Sweden
2003 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 189, no 3-4, 147-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Abisko, climatic change, diatom algae, palaeolimnology, transfer functions, radioisotopic dating, WA-PLS model validation
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2796 (URN)10.1016/S0031-0182(02)00638-7 (DOI)000180415800002 ()
Available from: 2001-11-01 Created: 2001-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Quantitative multiproxy assessment of long-term patterns of Holocene environmental change from a small lake near Abisko, northern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative multiproxy assessment of long-term patterns of Holocene environmental change from a small lake near Abisko, northern Sweden
Show others...
2002 (English)In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 12, no 4, 481-496 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantitative reconstructions are made of Holocene changes in climatic and environmental conditions from analyses of pollen, chironomids and diatoms in identical stratigraphic levels of a sediment core from Vuoskku-javri (68degrees20'43 N, 19degrees06'00 E, 348 m a.s.l.) near Abisko in northern Sweden (Lapland). Transfer functions, based on regional calibration sets, are applied to reconstruct Holocene patterns in mean July air temperature (using all three indicators). mean January air temperature (pollen), annual precipitation (pollen) and lakewater pH (diatoms). During periods with 'good' fit to the modern calibration sets all mean July air-temperature inferences based on the three proxy indicators reveal a general trend of decreasing temperature: pollen-inferred mean July air temperature shows a decrease of c, 1.1degreesC since 7500 cal. yrs BP; the chironomids show a decrease of c. 1.2degreesC since the early Holocene whereas the diatoms show a decrease of c. 1.5degreesC since 6000 cal. yrs BP. Pollen-inferred mean January air temperature indicates that winters may have been warmer by c. 3.0degreesC during the early Holocene, followed by a gradual cooling until 8500 cal. yrs BP (c. 1.0degreesC warmer than today) and a subsequent warming until 7000 cal. yrs BP (c. 2.0degreesC warmer than today). Since 7000 cal, yrs BP, a gradual cooling towards the present-day values is inferred. According to the pollen, annual precipitation may have been considerably higher during the early Holocene than today (c. +150 mm) and increased until 7000 cal. yrs BP (c. +320 mm). Since 7000 cal. yrs BP, annual precipitation decreased continuously towards present-day values. Diatom-inferred pH trends show that natural acidification of c. 0.5 pH units followed deglaciation; present-day values were reached c. 5000 cal. yrs BP. The early Holocene is identified as a problematic time period for the application of modern calibration sets. as diatoms show 'poor' fit to the calibration set from 10 600 to 6000 cal. yrs BP. pollen from 10 600 to 7500 cal. yrs BP, and chironomids from 10 250 to 10 000 cal. yrs BP. Compared with estimates from the COHMAP GCM model, mean July air-temperature inferences based on biological proxies at Vuoskkujavri suggest a more moderate decrease in temperature over the past 9000 years.

Keyword
pollen, chironomids, diatoms, Subarctic, Lapland, precipitation, pH, temperature, multiproxy approach, quantitative inferences, weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS), Holocene
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2797 (URN)10.1191/0959683602hl559rp (DOI)000176583900009 ()
Available from: 2001-11-01 Created: 2001-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Holocene environmental change at Lake Njulla (999 m asl), northern Sweden: a comparison with four small nearby lakes along an altitudinal gradient
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holocene environmental change at Lake Njulla (999 m asl), northern Sweden: a comparison with four small nearby lakes along an altitudinal gradient
Show others...
2003 (English)In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 29, no 1, 13-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We assess Holocene environmental change at alpine Lake Njulla (68degrees22'N, 18degrees42'E, 999 m a.s.l.) in northernmost Sweden using sedimentary remains of chironomid head capsules and diatoms. We apply regional calibration sets to quantitatively reconstruct mean July air temperature (using chironomids and diatoms) and lake-water pH (using diatoms). Both chironomids and diatoms infer highest temperatures (1.7-2.3degreesC above present-day estimates, including, a correction for glacio-isostatic land up-lift by 0.6degreesC) during the early Holocene (c. 9,500-8,500 cal. yrs BP). Diatoms suggest a decreasing lake-water pH trend (c. 0.6 pH units) since the early Holocene. Using detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), we compare the Holocene development of diatom communities in Lake Njulla with four other nearby lakes (Lake 850, Lake Tibetanus, Vuoskkujavri, Vuolep Njakajaure) located along an altitudinal gradient. All five lakes show similar initial DCCA scores after deglaciation, suggesting that similar environmental processes such as high erosion rates and low light availability associated with high summer temperature appear to have regulated the diatom community, favouring high abundances of Fragilaria species. Subsequently, the diatom assemblages develop in a directional manner, but timing and scale of development differ substantially between lakes. This is attributed primarily to differences in the local geology, which is controlling the lake-water pH. Imposed on the basic geological setting, site-specific processes such as vegetation development, climate, hydrological setting and in-lake processes appear to control lake development in northern Sweden.

Keyword
Abisko, chironomids, diatoms, lake development, lake-water pH, mean July air temperature, plant macrofossils, quantitative reconstruction, subarctic lakes, vegetation change
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-2798 (URN)10.1023/A:1022850925937 (DOI)000183141800002 ()
Available from: 2001-11-01 Created: 2001-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(207 kB)2370 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 207 kBChecksum SHA-1
d900dfc317f756f3d15b2042ca3622f93f287075e56fb2c2ee5461d27de9e557cacdc8b9
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Ecology and Environmental Science
Physical Geography

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 2370 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 2518 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf