Instrumental and methodological developments for isotope dilution analysis of gaseous mercury species
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis deals with instrumental and methodological developments for speciation analysis of gaseous mercury (Hg(g)), based on isotope dilution analysis (IDA). The studied species include Hg0, (CH3)2Hg, CH3HgX and HgX2 (where X symbolises a negatively charged counter ion in the form of a halide or hydroxyl ion). Gas chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) was used for separation and detection of Hg(g) species. Permeation tubes were used for the generation of gaseous isotopically enriched Hg standards (tracers). These tracers were continuously added to the sample gas stream during sampling of Hg(g). A mobile prototype apparatus incorporating both the permeation source and a sampling unit for collection of Hg(g) was developed and used for this purpose. Hg(g) species were pre-concentrated on Tenax TA and / or Carbotrap solid adsorbents. Au-Pt was used for pre-concentration of total Hg(g), either as the primary medium, or as backup. Collected species were eluted from these media and introduced to the instrument by thermal desorption.
Various degrees of species transformations, as well as losses of analyte during pre-concentration and elution, were found to occur for both Tenax TA and Carbotrap. The performance characteristics of these media were shown to be species specific, as well as matrix dependent. The development of an on-line derivatisation procedure allowed for minimised species transformations, as well as reduced adsorption and memory effects of ionic Hg(g) species within the analytical system. In conclusion, IDA provides an important tool for identification, minimisation and correction of the above mentioned analytical problems. Furthermore, it offers significant advantages with respect to quality assurance, compared to conventional techniques, both when it comes to rational development of new methodology, as well as for continuous validation of existing procedures.
The developed methodology for speciation analysis of Hg(g) has been tested in various applications, including the determination of Hg(g) species concentrations in ambient air (both in and outdoor) and in the head space of sediment microcosms. Hg(g) species were formed in the sediments as a result of naturally occurring redox and methylation processes, after addition of an isotope enriched aqueous Hg(II) precursor. The methodology has also been used for assessing the risk of occupational exposure to Hg(g) species during remediation of a Hg contaminated soil and for studying Hg0(g) transport and Au-Pt pre-concentration characteristics in natural gases. Hg0 was used as the model species in the latter experiments, since it is believed to be the dominating form of Hg(g) in natural gas. The results indicate that the occurrence of H2S can cause temperature dependent adsorption and memory effects of Hg0(g) in the presence of stainless steel, thereby providing a plausible explanation to the variability of results for sour gases occasionally observed in the field. Hg0(g) has demonstrated overall high recovery during collection on Au-Pt tubes for all gases tested in this thesis. Recent (unpublished) results however indicate that there are potential species specific and matrix dependent effects associated with the Au-Pt based pre-concentration of Hg(g) in natural gases.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi , 2007. , 46 p.
Mercury, gas, species, speciation analysis, isotope dilution analysis, permeation tubes
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1448ISBN: 978-91-7264-463-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1448DiVA: diva2:141102
2007-12-15, Lilla hörsalen, KBC, 90187, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Hintelmann, Holger, Prof
Björn, Erik, Ass Prof
List of papers