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Vitamins, fatty acids, physical activity and peak bone mass
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mineral density, deteriorated bone microstructure and increased fracture risk. About 50% of all women and 25% of all men will have an osteoporotic fracture. Given that there is no effective cure in established osteoporosis, prevention is of high importance. Bone mineral density (BMD) is accumulated during childhood and adolescence with a peak at about 20 years of age. Peak BMD has been suggested to explain at least half of the variation in BMD up to old age. Thus, to increase peak BMD could decrease the risk of later fractures. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the influence of physical activity, vitamins A and D, and fatty acids on peak bone mass in men.

The influence of physical activity on bone accrual was studied in two cohorts. In the first cohort 46 ice hockey players, 18 badminton players and 27 controls, all 17 years of age at baseline, were followed for four years. During the follow up the badminton players gained more bone mass at the hip compared to both the ice hockey players and controls. In the second cohort the associations between physical activity and BMD were investigated in 62 female and 62 male young medical students. The estimated high impact activity per week was associated with bone mass at all sites in the male medical students (r=0.27-0.53, p<0.05). In the female cohort different estimates of physical activity were not related to bone mass at any site. In both males and females correlations between bone mass and body constitution parameters were observed.

Levels of vitamin D3, vitamin D2, retinol, retinol-binding-protein-4 (RBP-4) and fatty acids were measured in 78 young men with a mean age of 22.6 years. BMD at various sites were measured using Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry. Levels of vitamin D3 showed a significant positive association with all BMD sites and also lean body mass (r=0.23-0.35, p<0.05). Levels of vitamin D2, however, showed a significant negative correlation with BMD of the total body (r=-0.28, p=0.01) and spine (r=-0.27, p=0.02). There was also a significant negative relationship between levels of vitamin D3 and D2 (r=-0.31, p=0.006). Concentrations of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids showed a positive association with BMD at the total body (r=0.27, p=0.02) and spine BMD (r=0.25, p=0.02). There was also a positive association between levels of n-3 fatty acids and changes in BMD of the spine between 16 and 22 years of age (r=0.26, p=0.02). The significant associations found seemed to be related mostly to the concentration of the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Levels of retinol and RBP-4 were not related to BMD but to levels of osteocalcin, which is a marker of bone formation. This association disappeared when adjusting for the influence of abdominal fat mass.

In summary, the present thesis suggests that many modifiable factors may influence the accumulation of peak bone mass in males, such as physical activity, vitamins, and fatty acids. Further studies are needed to investigate whether optimizing these factors in youth may decrease the risk of osteoporosis later in life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap , 2007. , 98 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1139
Keyword [en]
physical activity, vitamin A, vitamin D, fatty acids, peak bone mass, males
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1451ISBN: 978-91-7264-401-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1451DiVA: diva2:141115
Public defence
2007-12-14, Betula, 6M, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-26 Created: 2007-11-26 Last updated: 2009-06-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effects of different types of weight-bearing loading on bone mass and size in young males: A longitudinal study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of different types of weight-bearing loading on bone mass and size in young males: A longitudinal study.
2007 (English)In: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 42, no 3, 565-571 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-8329 (URN)10.1016/j.bone.2007.11.012 (DOI)18191629 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Current physical activity is related to bone mineral density in males but not in females.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current physical activity is related to bone mineral density in males but not in females.
Show others...
2007 (English)In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 28, no 5, 431-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Absorptiometry; Photon, Adult, Body Composition, Bone Density/*physiology, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Motor Activity/*physiology, Sex Factors
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-8331 (URN)10.1055/s-2006-924514 (DOI)17111323 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Relationship between vitamin D metabolites and bone mineral density in young males: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship between vitamin D metabolites and bone mineral density in young males: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
2006 (English)In: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 79, no 2, 95-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2/blood, Adult, Body Height, Body Mass Index, Body Weight, Bone Density, Bone and Bones/metabolism, Cohort Studies, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Osteocalcin/metabolism, Parathyroid Hormone/metabolism, Time Factors, Vitamin D/*metabolism/pharmacology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-17014 (URN)10.1007/s00223-006-0049-8 (DOI)16927046 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Retinol, retinol-binding protein 4, abdominal fat mass, peak bone mineral density, and markers of bone metabolism in men: the Northern Osteoporosis and Obesity (NO2) Study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retinol, retinol-binding protein 4, abdominal fat mass, peak bone mineral density, and markers of bone metabolism in men: the Northern Osteoporosis and Obesity (NO2) Study.
2008 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 158, no 5, 765-770 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CONTEXT: The association between retinol and bone mineral density (BMD) in males after puberty has not been fully investigated previously. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between retinol, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), BMD (g/cm(2)), abdominal fat mass, and markers of bone metabolism in young men. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight healthy males with a mean age of 22.6+/-0.7 years at baseline. A follow-up was conducted in 73 of the participants 2.0+/-0.4 years later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between serum concentrations of retinol and RBP-4, and BMD of the total body, lumbar spine, and hip, serum concentrations of osteocalcin, and carboxy terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), were investigated. RESULTS: Both retinol and RBP-4 showed an inverse relationship with that of osteocalcin (r=-0.23 to -0.25, P<0.05). Levels of RBP-4 (r=0.26, P=0.02) and osteocalcin (r=-0.23, P=0.04) were also related to abdominal fat mass, and the relationship between RBP-4, retinol, and osteocalcin disappeared after adjusting for this influence of abdominal fat mass. Neither retinol nor RBP-4 concentrations were associated with BMD at any site, CTX as baseline, or changes in BMD during the 2-year follow-up period. Levels of RBP-4 showed a strong association with levels of retinol (r=0.61, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: We found a negative association between the bone formation marker osteocalcin with retinol and RBP-4. The association disappeared when adjusting for the influence of abdominal fat mass. Neither retinol nor RBP-4 were associated with peak BMD in young men.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-19093 (URN)10.1530/EJE-07-0796 (DOI)18426837 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13
5. n-3 Fatty acids are positively associated with peak bone mineral density and bone accrual in healthy men: the NO2 Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>n-3 Fatty acids are positively associated with peak bone mineral density and bone accrual in healthy men: the NO2 Study
2007 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, ISSN 0002-9165, Vol. 85, no 3, 803-807 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:Knowledge of the influence of nutritional intake on bone health is limited. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to influence bone growth and modeling in humans, although data are sparse.

Objective:The objective was to investigate the role of fatty acids in bone accumulation and the attainment of peak bone mass in young men.

Design:The cohort studied consisted of 78 healthy young men with a mean age of 16.7 y at baseline. Bone mineral density (BMD; in g/cm2) of total body, hip, and spine was measured at baseline and at 22 and 24 y of age. Fatty acid concentrations were measured in the phospholipid fraction in serum at 22 y of age.

Results:Concentrations of n−3 fatty acids were positively associated with total BMD (r = 0.27, P = 0.02) and spine BMD (r = 0.25, P = 0.02) at 22 y of age. A positive correlation between n−3 fatty acid concentrations and the changes in BMD at the spine (r = 0.26, P = 0.02) was found between 16 and 22 y of age. Concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n−3) were positively associated with total BMD (r = 0.32, P = 0.004) and BMD at the spine (r = 0.30, P = 0.008) at 22 y of age. A positive correlation was also found between DHA concentrations and the changes in BMD at the spine (r = 0.26, P = 0.02) between 16 and 22 y of age.

Conclusion:The results showed that n−3 fatty acids, especially DHA, are positively associated with bone mineral accrual and, thus, with peak BMD in young men.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2007
Keyword
Administration, Oral, Adolescent, Bone Density/drug effects, Bone and Bones/drug effects/*physiology, Cohort Studies, Diet, Exercise, Fatty Acids/blood, Fatty Acids; Omega-3/administration & dosage/*pharmacology, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Phospholipids/*blood, Reference Values, Time Factors
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-8330 (URN)17344503 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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