Vitamins, fatty acids, physical activity and peak bone mass
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mineral density, deteriorated bone microstructure and increased fracture risk. About 50% of all women and 25% of all men will have an osteoporotic fracture. Given that there is no effective cure in established osteoporosis, prevention is of high importance. Bone mineral density (BMD) is accumulated during childhood and adolescence with a peak at about 20 years of age. Peak BMD has been suggested to explain at least half of the variation in BMD up to old age. Thus, to increase peak BMD could decrease the risk of later fractures. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the influence of physical activity, vitamins A and D, and fatty acids on peak bone mass in men.
The influence of physical activity on bone accrual was studied in two cohorts. In the first cohort 46 ice hockey players, 18 badminton players and 27 controls, all 17 years of age at baseline, were followed for four years. During the follow up the badminton players gained more bone mass at the hip compared to both the ice hockey players and controls. In the second cohort the associations between physical activity and BMD were investigated in 62 female and 62 male young medical students. The estimated high impact activity per week was associated with bone mass at all sites in the male medical students (r=0.27-0.53, p<0.05). In the female cohort different estimates of physical activity were not related to bone mass at any site. In both males and females correlations between bone mass and body constitution parameters were observed.
Levels of vitamin D3, vitamin D2, retinol, retinol-binding-protein-4 (RBP-4) and fatty acids were measured in 78 young men with a mean age of 22.6 years. BMD at various sites were measured using Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry. Levels of vitamin D3 showed a significant positive association with all BMD sites and also lean body mass (r=0.23-0.35, p<0.05). Levels of vitamin D2, however, showed a significant negative correlation with BMD of the total body (r=-0.28, p=0.01) and spine (r=-0.27, p=0.02). There was also a significant negative relationship between levels of vitamin D3 and D2 (r=-0.31, p=0.006). Concentrations of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids showed a positive association with BMD at the total body (r=0.27, p=0.02) and spine BMD (r=0.25, p=0.02). There was also a positive association between levels of n-3 fatty acids and changes in BMD of the spine between 16 and 22 years of age (r=0.26, p=0.02). The significant associations found seemed to be related mostly to the concentration of the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Levels of retinol and RBP-4 were not related to BMD but to levels of osteocalcin, which is a marker of bone formation. This association disappeared when adjusting for the influence of abdominal fat mass.
In summary, the present thesis suggests that many modifiable factors may influence the accumulation of peak bone mass in males, such as physical activity, vitamins, and fatty acids. Further studies are needed to investigate whether optimizing these factors in youth may decrease the risk of osteoporosis later in life.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap , 2007. , 98 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1139
physical activity, vitamin A, vitamin D, fatty acids, peak bone mass, males
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1451ISBN: 978-91-7264-401-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1451DiVA: diva2:141115
2007-12-14, Betula, 6M, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Karlsson, Jon, Professor
Nordström, Peter, DocentNordström, Anna, Med. Dr
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