The calcitonin gene family of peptides consists of calcitonin (CT), two calcitonin gene related peptides (α-CGRP, β-CGRP), adrenomedullin (ADM), amylin (AMY), three calcitonin receptor activating peptides (CRSP1-3) and intermedin/adrenomedullin2 (IMD). These peptides bind to one of two G protein -coupled receptors, the calcitonin receptor (CTR) or the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR). The receptor specificity to different ligands is dependent on the formation of a complex with one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3).
The aim of this study was to analyse effects of this family of peptides on the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption, and the expression of the receptor components in bone cells.
CT inhibited the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in spleen cell cultures and in bone marrow macrophage cultures (BMM) without affecting a number of genes important for osteoclast differentiation, activity or fusion of osteoclast progenitor cells. All members of the CT family, except ADM, inhibited osteoclastogenesis in BMM. The inhibitory effect seemed to involve activation of both protein kinase A and the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) signalling. BMM expressed the CRLR, RAMP1-3 and the receptor component protein (RCP). AMY, ADM, CGRP and IMD, but not CRSP and CT, increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in these cells, indicating the presence of functional receptors. Stimulation of BMM with RANKL gradually increased the levels of CTR mRNA as well as the capacity of the cells to respond to the stimulation by CRSP and CT. The response to stimulation of ADM was, on the contrary, decreased by RANKL. Stimulation of RANKL caused a transiently enhanced CRLR mRNA expression and transiently decreased RAMP1, but did not affect RAMP2, RAMP3, or RCP mRNA. However, RANKL did not affect protein levels of CRLR or RAMP1-3. CT, CGRP, AMY, ADM, IMD and CRSP all down regulated the CTR mRNA, but none of the peptides caused any effects on the expression of CRLR or any of the RAMPs.
All members of the CT family, except ADM, rapidly and transiently, inhibited bone resorption in mouse calvarial bones. CT, CGRP, AMY and CRSP also significantly stimulated cAMP formation in the calvaria. cAMP analogues specifically stimulating the PKA or the Epac pathways did not cause inhibition of bone resorption in the calvaria. An unspecific cAMP analogue, stimulating both pathways did, however, cause inhibition.
Analyses of an osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, showed that these cells express the mRNA for CRLR and all three RAMP proteins.
In conclusion, the results of this thesis show that all peptides in CT family of peptides, except ADM, inhibit of bone resorption and osteoclast formation and that these effects involve the adenylate cyclase-cAMP pathway. Furthermore, expressions of CRLR and RAMP1-3 mRNA have been demonstrated on osteoclasts, as well as in an osteoblastic cell line.
Umeå: Odontologi , 2008. , 77 p.
CT family of peptides, osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, CTR, CRLR, RAMPs