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Protective effects of plasmin(ogen) in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
2008 (English)In: Arthritis and rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, Vol. 58, no 3, 764-772 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To assess the functional roles of plasmin in a murine model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced bacterial arthritis. Methods: Bacterial arthritis was induced in plasminogen-deficient (Plg-/-) and wild-type (Plg+/+) littermates by local injection of 1 × 106 colony-forming units of S aureus into the knee joints. Human plasminogen was administered to Plg-/- mice on days 0-7 or days 7-14. Antibiotic treatment was administered to Plg-/- mice on days 7-14. Bacteria counts and histologic, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses were performed. Results: In Plg+/+ mice, S aureus counts had declined within 2 days, and by day 28 the bacteria had been completely eliminated. However, S aureus was still detectable in all injected joints from Plg-/- mice, and bacteria counts were 27 times higher than the amount injected on day 0. The extent of macrophage and neutrophil recruitment to the infected joints was comparable for Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice on days 1, 7, and 14. The activation of these inflammatory cells appeared to be impaired in Plg-/- mice, however. Treatment of Plg-/- mice with antibiotic (cloxacillin) resulted in successful killing of the bacteria, but the necrotic tissue remained in the infected joints. When human plasminogen was given intravenously to Plg-/- mice daily for 7 days, bacterial clearance was greatly improved as compared with their untreated counterparts, and the amount of necrotic tissue in the joint cavity was dramatically reduced. The expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-10 was higher in Plg+/+ mice than in Plg-/- mice during bacterial arthritis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that plasmin plays a pluripotent role in protecting against S aureus-induced arthritis by activating inflammatory cells, killing bacteria, removing necrotic tissue, and enhancing cytokine expression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 58, no 3, 764-772 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3085DOI: 10.1002/art.23263OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-3085DiVA: diva2:141539
Available from: 2008-04-07 Created: 2008-04-07 Last updated: 2011-03-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Plasmin: a potent pro-inflammatory factor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasmin: a potent pro-inflammatory factor
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Plasmin, the central molecule of the plasminogen activator system, is a broad-spectrum serine protease. Plasmin is important for the degradation of fibrin and other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during a number of physiological and pathological processes. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the functional roles of plasmin during pathological inflammation and infection in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. For this purpose, mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), bacterial arthritis, infection, and sepsis have been used.

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that plasminogen-deficient mice are resistant to the development of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA). In contrast, others have shown that plasmin plays a protective role in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). To investigate the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in models of CIA and AIA, a new animal model of arthritis called local injection-induced arthritis (LIA) was developed. In this model, we replaced methylated bovine serum albumin, which is normally used as an immunogen in the AIA model, with collagen type II (CII) to induce arthritis. When wild-type and plasminogen-deficient mice were injected intra-articularly with CII or 0.9% NaCl following CIA induction, plasminogen-deficient mice developed typical CIA, but the disease was less severe than in wild-type mice and was restricted to the injected joints. When the AIA model was used, plasminogen-deficient mice developed a much more severe arthritis than the wild-type mice. These results indicate that both the antigen and joint trauma caused by the local injection are critical to explaining the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in CIA and AIA. This indicates that CIA and AIA have distinct pathogenic mechanisms and plasmin plays contrasting roles in different types of arthritis models.

To study the functional roles of plasmin in the host inflammatory response during infectious arthritis, a Staphylococcus aureus-induced bacterial arthritis model was established. When wild-type mice were injected intra-articularly with 1 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus per joint, all the bacteria were completely eliminated from the injected joints in 28 days. However, in the plasminogen-deficient mice, the S. aureus counts were 27-fold higher at day 28 than at day 0. When human plasminogen was given to the plasminogen-deficient mice daily for 7 days, the bacterial clearance was greatly improved and the necrotic tissue in the joint cavity was also completely eliminated. Supplementation of plasminogen-deficient mice with plasminogen also restored the expression level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the arthritic joints. In summary, plasmin has protective roles during S. aureus-induced arthritis by enhancing cytokine expression, removing necrotic tissue, and mediating bacterial killing and inflammatory cell activation.

The functional roles of plasmin during infection and sepsis were also studied in mice. Infection was induced by injecting 1 × 107 CFU of S. aureus intravenously and the sepsis model was induced by injecting 1.6 × 108 CFU of S. aureus. In the infection model, the wild-type mice had a 25-day survival rate of 86.7%, as compared to 50% in the plasminogen-deficient group. However, when sepsis was induced, the average survival for plasminogen-deficient mice was 3 days longer than for wild-type mice. Twenty-four hours after the induction of sepsis, the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 as well as the bacterial counts in all organs investigated were significantly higher in wild-type mice than in plasminogen-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, blockade of IL-6 by intravenous injection of anti-IL-6 antibodies significantly prolonged the onset of mortality and improved the survival rate during sepsis. These data indicate that plasmin plays different roles during infection and sepsis. Furthermore, plasmin appears to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression during sepsis.

Taken together, our data indicate that plasmin plays multifunctional pro-inflammatory roles in different autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. The pro-inflammatory roles of plasmin include activation of inflammatory cells, regulation of cytokine expression, and enhancement of the bacterial killing ability of the host.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Medicinsk kemi och biofysik, 2008. 52 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1167
Keyword
plasmin, inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, bacterial arthritis, infection, sepsis, cytokine, signal transduction
National Category
Pathobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1607 (URN)978-91-7264-530-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-24, KB3A9, KBC, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-07 Created: 2008-04-07 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved

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