Temporomandibular joint disk displacement and subsequent adverse mandibular growth: a radiographic, histologic and biomolecular experimental study
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The mandibular condyles represent important growth sites within the facial skeleton. Condylar growth is not a pacemaker of mandibular development, but it provides regional adaptive growth that is of considerable clinical significance, as the condyle’s upward and backward growth movement regulates the anteriorly and inferiorly directed displacement of the mandible as a whole.
Orthopedic problems of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), such as displacement of the TMJ disk, are common in the adolescent population. Clinical studies of mandibular asymmetry and mandibular retrognathia in adults as well as in children and adolescents, have reported an association with coexisting non-reducing displacement of the TMJ disk without identifying the cause and effect. Through experimental studies causality has been established, and unilateral affliction during growth has been shown to retard ipsilateral mandibular development with facial asymmetry as the sequel. It was hypothesized that bilateral non-reducing TMJ disk displacement during growth would impair mandibular development bilaterally, resulting in mandibular retrognathia. TMJ disk displacement has repeatedly been demonstrated to induce histological reactions of the condylar cartilage. An additional assumption was therefore that a non-deranged TMJ disk function is crucial for the maintenance of the growing condyle’s biophysical environment, and that a connection ought to exist between the amount of condylar cartilage changes caused by TMJ disk displacement and the amount of subsequent adverse mandibular growth. It was also hypothesized that non-reducing displacement of the TMJ disk in growing individuals would result in qualitative and quantitative changes of the condylar subchondral bone.
An improved experimental cephalometric method was developed in order to optimize the reliability of longitudinal radiographic evaluation of fast growing small animals. Bilateral non-reducing TMJ disk displacement was surgically created in ten growing New Zealand White rabbits, with ten additional rabbits serving as a sham operated control group. The amount and direction of craniofacial growth was followed over time in serial cephalograms, aided by tantalum implants in the jaws. The study period was chosen to correspond to childhood and adolescence in man. The assessed growth of each side of the mandible was correlated to the histological feature of ipsilateral condylar cartilage at the end of the growth period. The amount and composition of subchondral bone from three regions of interest in the condyle, and the expression of local growth factors in the adjacent condylar cartilage was evaluated.
The results verified that bilateral non-reducing TMJ disk displacement retarded mandibular growth bilaterally; the extent corresponding to mandibular retrognathia in man. Displacement of the TMJ disk during the growth period induced condylar cartilage adaptive reactions that were associated with both an adverse amount and direction of mandibular growth, manifesting in a retrognathic mandibular growth pattern. Growth impairment fluctuated over time, with the most striking retardation occurring during periods of increased general growth, implying a local growth reduction explicitly counteracting general hormonal growth acceleration. A significant decrease of the total amount of subchondral bone, in spite of a general increase of new bone formation in the experimental condyles, pointed to a reparative compensation for an extensive resorption of subchondral bone due to displacement of the TMJ disk, but not to the extent that normal growth would be maintained. These results constitute an explanation for the adverse mandibular development following non-reducing TMJ disk displacement in growing individuals.
This project has shown that non-reducing displacement of the TMJ disk during growth has significant consequences on facial development. The findings strongly advocate early and accurate diagnosis and treatment of TMJ disk displacement in the adolescent population, thereby presumably reducing the need for future orthodontic and surgical craniofacial corrective therapy. The results furthermore enhance the need for full appraisal of TMJ disk function in the adolescent population during orthodontic functional therapy, as the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone reactions to a concomitantly displaced non-reducing TMJ disk must be expected to interfere with the intended growth stimulating treatment. The findings of intact articular layers in spite of gross histological and morphological soft and hard tissue changes as a sequel to TMJ disk displacement in growing individuals, implicate a clinical risk of false positive radiographic diagnosis of degenerative changes of the TMJ in children and adolescents.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Oral diagnostisk radiologi , 2008. , 58 p.
Umeå University odontological dissertations, ISSN 0345-7532 ; 103
adolescence, adverse growth, condylar cartilage, subchondral bone, TMJ
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1624ISBN: 978-91-7264-523-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1624DiVA: diva2:141588
2008-05-09, Sal B, 1 D, Tandläkarhögskolan, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Hollender, Lars G, Professor
Isberg, Annika, ProfessorEriksson, Lars, Professor
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