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BioRID II manikin and human seating position in relation to car head restraint
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
2008 (English)In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 13, no 5, 479-485 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the study was to compare stature, weight and backset (the horizontal distance (x) between the back of the occupant's head and the front of the seam on top of the head restraint) of the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID II) to the same variables on seated volunteers in a car. The following methods were used. Data were collected from 154 randomly selected Swedish individuals (78 males and 76 females). The volunteers and the BioRID II were examined in a Volvo V70 car, year model 2003, in three positions: driver (hands on steering wheel), front passenger (hands in lap) and rear passenger. The study results were as follows: the BioRID II was found to correspond approximately to a 35th-45th percentile male in stature (-2 cm), a 35th percentile male in weight (-7 kg), a 96th percentile female in stature (+11 cm) and a 69th percentile female in weight (+8 kg). The BioRID II was designed to represent a male driver. The BioRID II backset corresponded well with the average of the male drivers of its stature. Larger deviations in backset were found for other volunteer sizes and other seating positions. The average backsets were 26 mm for females and 63 mm for males in the front seat positions. The volunteers had larger backset in the driver position (60 mm) than in the front passenger position (29 mm). Smaller differences in backset were seen between the BioRID II and the volunteers in the rear passenger position. This study provides data regarding the occupant size coverage of BioRID II, and unique data regarding backset, of different occupant positions in the car; driver with hands on steering wheel, and front and rear passengers with hands in lap, for female and male in relation to the BioRID II dummy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2008. Vol. 13, no 5, 479-485 p.
Keyword [en]
BioRID II, stature, weight, backset, gender, position
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3150DOI: 10.1080/13588260802120926ISI: 000259036900002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-3150DiVA: diva2:141634
Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interaction between humans and car seats: studies of occupant seat adjustment, posture, position, and real world neck injuries in rear-end impacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction between humans and car seats: studies of occupant seat adjustment, posture, position, and real world neck injuries in rear-end impacts
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The latest generation of rear-end whiplash protection systems, as found in the WHIPS Volvo and SAHR Saab, have reduced injury rates by almost 50% in comparison with the previous generation of seat/head restraint systems. Occupant behaviour, such as seated posture and seat adjustment settings, may affect the injury risk. Method: Five studies were conducted. Studie I was an injury outcome study based on insurance data. Studies II-IV investigated seat adjustment, occupant backset, and cervical retraction for drivers and occupants in different postures and positions in the car, during stationary and driving conditions. Study V compared the occupant data from studies II and III with a vehicle testing tool, the BioRID dummy, using the protocols of the ISO, RCAR, and the RCAR-IIWPG.

Results: Female drivers and passengers had a threefold increased risk for medically-impairing neck injury in rear-end impacts, compared to males. Driver position had a double risk compared with front passenger seat position. Female drivers adjusted the driver seat differently to male drivers; they sat higher and closer to the steering wheel and with more upright back support. The volunteers also adjusted their seat differently to the ISO, RCAR, and RCAR-IIWPG protocol settings; both sexes sat further away from the steering wheel, and seat back angle was more upright then in the protocols. In stationary cars, backset was highest in the rear seat position and lowest in the front passenger seat position. Males had a larger backset than females. Cervical retraction decreased and backset increased for both sexes when posture changed from self-selected posture to a slouched posture. The BioRID II dummy was found to represent 96th percentile female in stature, and a 69th percentile female in weight in the volunteer group.

Conclusions: Risks in car rear-end impacts differ by sex and seated position. This thesis indicates the need for a 50th percentile female BioRID dummy and re-evaluation of the ISO, RCAR, and RCAR-IIWPG protocols, and further development of new safety systems to protect occupants in rear-end impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, 2008. 39 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; ISSN 0346-6612-1163
Keyword
Surgery, backset, Whiplash, rear-end impact, seated posture, seated position, bioRID, Kirurgi
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1636 (URN)978-91-7264-525-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, Sal D, Tandläkarhögskolan 9tr, Umeå Universitet, 901 85 Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2009-05-04Bibliographically approved

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