PLE with integrated clean up followed by alternative detection steps for cost-effective analysis of dixons and dioxin-like compounds
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are two structurally related groups of chemicals, generally referred to as `dioxins´. These are of great concern due to their high toxicity and global spread. Other groups of compounds with similar chemical structure and toxicity mechanisms are the brominated analogues polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and the dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Numerous studies have been undertaken to investigate sources and transport routes of dioxins. However, much remains to be done, including analytical, inventories of dioxin-like compounds, such as PBDD/Fs, and the development of more convenient analytical methods. The currently standard procedure for analyzing dioxins (and dioxin-like compounds) is to use Soxhlet extraction followed by multi-step clean-up and gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (GC- HRMS) for detection. Unfortunately, this method is very solvent, labor and time-consuming, making it very expensive.
The main aim of the studies this thesis was to develop pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with integrated clean up techniques for fast, convenient preparation of dioxin samples. PLE with integrated clean-up has previously been used for extracting dioxins from biological samples, but in these studies the possibility of extending its use to abiotic samples was explored. The results show that PLE with an integrated carbon trap is suitable for analyzing dioxins in various types of soil samples, sediment and flue gas samples. The results also showed that it has potential for analyzing dioxins in fly ash. The thesis focuses on developments of the methodology for dioxin analysis, but also includes results obtained from PBDDs and dioxin-like PCB analyses. In addition, the possibility of using various other kinds of detection techniques rather than GC-HRMS, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection (GCxGC-µECD) was explored. The results indicate that ELISA and GCxGC-µECD could serve as complementary detection systems in some cases. However, it is not yet possible to fully replace GC-HRMS.
A further refinement of the PLE with in-cell clean-up technique is the modular approach developed in these studies. With this technique it is possible to include various steps for both clean-up and fractionation. For example, sulphuric acid impregnated silica could be combined with active carbon for the simultaneous removal of lipids (along with other interferences) and fractionation of PCBs and PCDD/Fs. It was shown that the method could provide data that agreed reasonably well with both reference values and values obtained using traditional methods. In general PLE proved to have high extraction efficiency and to yield very similar congener profiles to the reference method. In addition, it was shown that it allowed one-step extraction and clean-up of a salmon sample. Such single-step procedures are the ultimate goals for any extraction technique, and it would be highly desirable to develop one-step methods that could be extended to other types of samples. For the rest of the matrices tested (soil, sediment, mussel and crab tissue and flue gas) the method was successful, however a final polishing step is currently required, involving either dilution or clean-up using miniaturized multilayer silica columns, to obtain extracts that are pure enough for GC-HRMS analysis.
Using the developed modular-PLE system substantial costs could be saved. It was estimated that the method could reduce the cost of preparing samples by up to 90%, which would greatly facilitate large-scale inventories.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi , 2008. , 37 p.
Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), PLE-C, modular PLE, ELISA, dioxin, dioxin-like compounds, GCxGC, analytical methods
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1665ISBN: 978-91-7264-584-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1665DiVA: diva2:141751
2008-06-13, N360, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Hyötyläinen, Tuulia, Professor
Haglund, Peter, DocentAndersson, Patrik, Forskarassistent
List of papers