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Five-day planetary waves in the middle atmosphere from Odin satellite data and ground-based instruments in Northern Hemisphere summer 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
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2008 (English)In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, 3557-3570 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of studies have shown that 5-day planetary waves modulate noctilucent clouds and the closely related Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) at the summer mesopause. Summer stratospheric winds should inhibit wave propagation through the stratosphere and, although some numerical models (Geisler and Dickinson, 1976) do show a possibility for upward wave propagation, it has also been suggested that the upward propagation may in practice be confined to the winter hemisphere with horizontal propagation of the wave from the winter to the summer hemisphere at mesosphere heights causing the effects observed at the summer mesopause. It has further been proposed (Garcia et al., 2005) that 5-day planetary waves observed in the summer mesosphere could be excited in-situ by baroclinic instability in the upper mesosphere. In this study, we first extract and analyze 5-day planetary wave characteristics on a global scale in the middle atmosphere (up to 54 km in temperature, and up to 68 km in ozone concentration) using measurements by the Odin satellite for selected days during northern hemisphere summer from 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007. Second, we show that 5-day temperature fluctuations consistent with westward-traveling 5-day waves are present at the summer mesopause, using local ground-based meteor-radar observations. Finally we examine whether any of three possible sources of the detected temperature fluctuations at the summer mesopause can be excluded: upward propagation from the stratosphere in the summer-hemisphere, horizontal propagation from the winter-hemisphere or in-situ excitation as a result of the baroclinic instability. We find that in one case, far from solstice, the baroclinic instability is unlikely to be involved. In one further case, close to solstice, upward propagation in the same hemisphere seems to be ruled out. In all other cases, all or any of the three proposed mechanisms are consistent with the observations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus publications , 2008. Vol. 26, 3557-3570 p.
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3418DOI: 10.5194/angeo-26-3557-2008OAI: diva2:142101
Available from: 2008-09-09 Created: 2008-09-09 Last updated: 2012-05-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Studies of planetary waves in ozone and temperature fields as observed by the Odin satellite in 2002-2007
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies of planetary waves in ozone and temperature fields as observed by the Odin satellite in 2002-2007
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The results presented in this PhD thesis are mainly based on measurements collected by the advanced sub-mm radiometer (SMR) aboard the Odin satellite in 2002-2007. The primary data are series of temperature and ozone profiles in the middle atmosphere up to 68 km. These data are used to estimate global properties of planetary wave propagation in both horizontal and vertical directions. As good-quality retrievals from Odin are not available above 68 km, additional data sources have been considered in order to extend coverage of planetary wave properties to higher levels. These sources are temperature observations at 85-90 km obtained by the ground-based meteor radars located in the polar region in the Northern Hemisphere in Scandinavia at Esrange and at Andenes, and in Canada at Resolute Bay and at Yellowknife. Also, the series of ozone profiles from the ground-based Kiruna mm-wave radiometer, KIMRA, are used in order to compare the wave properties in ozone fields measured globally by Odin and locally by KIMRA.

The main task of this PhD thesis is to study the 5-day planetary wave characteristics in the Earth’s atmosphere. The influence of waves on the atmospheric circulation causes, for example, substantial local departures from radiative equilibrium, observed in the winter stratosphere and close to the summer mesopause. Seasonal variations of the 5-day planetary wave properties and physical phenomena related to these variations are also studied in this thesis.

During winter, planetary waves propagate freely in the vertical direction, and maximal wave amplitudes are found in the extratropical stratosphere. The Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter periods of 2002-2003 and 2005 have been examined and a comparison has been carried out between the planetary wave properties in temperature and ozone variations. In general, the results show an expected in-phase behavior between the temperature and ozone fields in the lower stratosphere (due to dynamic effects) and an out-of-phase pattern in the upper stratosphere (which is expected as a result of photochemical effects).

Earlier theoretical and experimental studies have shown that, despite unfavourable summertime wind conditions, 5-day planetary waves can be registered not only in the stratosphere but also at higher altitudes in the mesosphere. The NH summers of 2003-2005 and 2007 have been considered and results have confirmed the existence of 5-day planetary waves up to the mesopause level (85-90 km). The results demonstrate that, for different periods, the possible source of the observed waves could be located at lower altitudes in both hemispheres with successive propagation into the summer mesosphere, or the waves could be generated in-situ as a result of the baroclinic instability of summer easterly jet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Fysik, 2008. 35 p.
IRF Scientific Report, ISSN 0284-1703 ; 298
middle atmosphere dynamics, planetary waves, 5-day planetary wave, temperature-ozone relationship, Odin satellite
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1819 (URN)978-91-7264-613-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-09-30, IRF:s aula, IRF, Kiruna, 10:00
Available from: 2008-09-09 Created: 2008-09-09Bibliographically approved

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