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Pro-environmental travel behavior: The importance of attitudinal factors, habits, and transport policy measures
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to study determinants of a readiness for pro-environmental travel behavior in households. Four empirical studies were conducted examining reduction in car use (Study I), acceptability of transport policy measures (Study II and III), and behavioral adaptations in response to travel demand management (TDM) measures (Study IV). In Study I, the aim was to interrupt habitual car use by means of a deliberation intervention and to examine the importance of moral motivation (i.e., personal norm) for car use reduction. Results showed that, as a result of the intervention, car use was mainly reduced among car users with a strong car use habit and a strong moral motivation to reduce car use. The aim of Study II was to examine factors important for the acceptability of three TDM measures: raised tax on fossil fuel, improved public transport, and an information campaign. The results demonstrated the importance of general environmental beliefs (i.e., pro-environmental orientation, problem awareness, personal norm, and willingness to reduce car use) and policy specific beliefs (i.e., perceived impact on freedom to choose travel mode and own car use, perceived effectiveness, and perceived fairness) for the acceptability of the measures. Furthermore, personal norm was found to be particularly important for the acceptability of raised tax and the information campaign, whereas problem awareness was more important for the acceptability of improved public transport. Following up on Study II, the purpose of Study III was to examine the acceptability of single and combined transport policy measures, more specifically, raised tax on fossil fuel, improved public transport, subsidies of renewable fuel, a package of raised tax on fossil fuel and improved public transport, and a package of raised tax on fossil fuel and subsidies of renewable fuel. General environmental beliefs (i.e., pro-environmental orientation, problem awareness, personal norm, and willingness to act) and policy specific beliefs (i.e., perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness) were found to be important for the acceptability of the measures. Moreover, personal norm was particularly important for the acceptability of raised tax on fossil fuel and the packages, while problem awareness was more important for the acceptability of improved public transport and subsidies of renewable fuel. The aim of Study IV was to examine the behavioral adaptations, more specifically, the expected car use reduction, in response to three hypothetical TDM measures: raised tax on fossil fuel, improved public transport, and a package of raised tax on fossil fuel and improved public transport. Furthermore, factors important for the expected car use reduction were analyzed. Results showed that a combination of the measures was expected to lead to a larger car use reduction compared to the single measures, and the most commonly chosen reduction strategies were more efficient car use and changing travel mode. Moreover, internal motivational factors, such as personal norm, and the perceived personal impact of the measures were important for expected car use reduction in response to the measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, Psykologi , 2008. , 52 p.
Keyword [en]
value-belief-norm theory, car habit, policy specific beliefs, car use reduction, acceptability, behavioral adaptations, travel demand management measures, transport policy measures
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1823ISBN: 978-91-7264-626-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1823DiVA: diva2:142130
Distributor:
Institutionen för psykologi, 90187, Umeå
Public defence
2008-10-03, MA121, MIT-huset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-09-12 Created: 2008-09-12 Last updated: 2010-12-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Interrupting habitual car use: The importance of car habit strength and moral motivation for personal car use reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interrupting habitual car use: The importance of car habit strength and moral motivation for personal car use reduction
2008 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 1, 10-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, habitual car use was interrupted by means of an intervention attempting to induce a deliberate consideration to reduce personal car use and forming implementation intentions for the planned changes in travel behavior. The importance of car habit strength and of moral motivation for reducing car use was analyzed. The study was conducted as a field experiment where 71 car users were recruited to either an experimental group or a control group. All participants reported car habit strength and moral motivation to reduce car use (i.e. personal norm) by means of a questionnaire, and recorded car use by means of weekly car diaries pre- and post-intervention. Results demonstrate that the intervention did make the choice of travel mode more deliberate since the association between car use and car habit strength were weakened while the relation between car use and personal norm were strengthened after compared to before the intervention. Moreover, as a result of the intervention car users with a strong car habit and a strong personal norm were found to be more likely to reduce car use as compared to those with a weak car habit and a weak personal norm. Hence, a reduction in car use may be facilitated by interrupting habitual car use, specifically if the car user has a strong car habit and a strong moral motivation to reduce personal car use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2008
Keyword
Car habit, Moral motivation, Car use reduction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3438 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2007.05.004 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-12 Created: 2008-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Acceptability of travel demand management measures: The importance of problem awareness, personal norm, freedom, and fairness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acceptability of travel demand management measures: The importance of problem awareness, personal norm, freedom, and fairness
2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 26, no 1, 15-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3439 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.05.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-12 Created: 2008-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Acceptability of single and combined transport policy measures: The importance of environmental and policy specific beliefs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acceptability of single and combined transport policy measures: The importance of environmental and policy specific beliefs
2008 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 42, 1117-1128 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the acceptability of different transport policy measures was examined. Three measures were assessed individually and as packages combining one push measure (a raised tax on fossil fuel) and one pull measure (in Package 1 improved public transport and in Package 2 a subsidy of renewable fuel). To analyze factors important for the acceptability, we proposed a model where the value-belief-norm theory combined with policy specific beliefs (perceived fairness and perceived effectiveness) predicted acceptability. Furthermore, we examined whether problem awareness or personal norm was more important for acceptability. In a questionnaire study conducted in Sweden, a sample of car users (N = 616) assessed the transport policy measures. Results showed that while the pull measures were perceived to be effective, fair, and acceptable, the push measure and the packages were perceived to be rather ineffective, unfair, and unacceptable. The proposed model was supported for the measures and problem awareness was found to have a direct effect on acceptability for the pull measures while personal norm was found to have a direct effect on acceptability for the push measure and the two policy packages. In addition, perceived fairness and effectiveness were found to be particularly important for acceptability.

Keyword
Transport policy measures, Value-belief-norm theory, Fairness, Effectiveness, Acceptability
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-10454 (URN)doi:10.1016/j.tra.2008.03.006 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-11 Created: 2008-09-11 Last updated: 2011-01-10Bibliographically approved
4. Expected car use reduction in response to structural travel demand management measures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expected car use reduction in response to structural travel demand management measures
2010 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, 329-342 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selecting the appropriate travel demand management (TDM) measures aiming to reduce the environmental problems associated with private transportation demands a thorough understanding of the behavioral consequences of different measures. In this scenario based study, the expected car use reduction in response to one push measure (i.e. raised tax on fossil fuel), one pull measure (i.e. improved public transport), and a combination of the two measures were analyzed. The aim was to compare the expected car use reduction in response to the different TDM measures, the car use reduction strategies used to achieve this reduction, and factors important for the expected car use reduction (i.e. background factors, internal motivational factors (general intention and personal norm), and perceived personal impact of the measure). In a two step between-subject design, a sample of car users first answered a pre-questionnaire and subsequently three groups of car users (N = 274) each evaluated one of the TDM measures. Results demonstrated that the combined measure led to larger expected car use reduction compared to the measures evaluated individually and the reduction was mainly expected to be made by means of trip chaining and changing travel mode. Moreover, internal motivational factors, such as personal norm or general intention, and the perceived impact of the measure, were found to be important for the expected car use reduction in response to the TDM measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2010
Keyword
Travel demandmanagement measures, Expected car use reduction, Car reducing strategies
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3441 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2010.06.001 (DOI)000281176000005 ()
Available from: 2008-09-12 Created: 2008-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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