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Myocardial infarction and cardiac regulation in relation to vibration exposure
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Enviromental Medicine.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis was to assess the possible risk of myocardial infarction in work entailing exposure to vibration, and to study whether there is any relation between short-term exposure to vibration and cardiac regulation.

Epidemiological methods were applied to investigate a possible association between occupational exposure to vibration and myocardial infarction. Two study populations were used; one case-control study (n=475) and one cohort of iron-ore miners in Kiruna and Malmberget, Sweden (n=13621). In the former, the cases were first-time myocardial infarction patients and the controls were selected to match for sex, age and hospital catchment area. Job-exposure matrixes for vibration were established for both the case-control study and the cohort study.

In order to study acute effects on cardiac regulation, an experimental study was conducted on healthy subjects (n=20) who were exposed to hand-arm vibration exclusively and in combination with exposure to noise. The effect on the autonomic balance was measured by heart rate-variability.

In the case-control study, an increased risk of contracting myocardial infarction was found among occupations entailing vibration exposure. The results from the cohort show an increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality compared to a reference population. The increment was higher for those younger than 60 years. Relative risks for myocardial infarction mortality increased with increasing exposure to vibration in the group at working-age and the increased risk remained after adjusting for exposure to dust. In the experimental study, exposure to hand-arm vibration was found to acutely affect the autonomic nervous system as the total heart-rate variability decreased during exposure to hand-arm vibration.

To conclude: work entailing exposure to vibration is a risk factor for myocardial infarction, increased myocardial infarction mortality attributed to exposure to vibration seems to be mainly observed at working-age, and exposure to hand-arm vibration acutely decreases heart-rate variability and thus affects heart-rate regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Yrkes- och miljömedicin , 2008.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1185
Keyword [en]
vibration exposure, myocardial infarction, cardiac regulation, exposure assessment, occupational exposure, epidemiology, cohort study, case-control study
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1903ISBN: 978-91-7264-571-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1903DiVA: diva2:142362
Public defence
2008-11-14, sal 933, 3A, NUS, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2008-11-06 Created: 2008-11-06 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Vibration exposure and myocardial infarction incidence: the VHEEP case-control study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vibration exposure and myocardial infarction incidence: the VHEEP case-control study.
2006 (English)In: Occup Med (Lond), ISSN 0962-7480, Vol. 56, no 5, 338-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Aged, Case-Control Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology/*etiology, Occupational Diseases/epidemiology/*etiology, Occupational Exposure/adverse effects, Risk Factors, Sweden/epidemiology, Vibration/*adverse effects
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-18235 (URN)16717050 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-11 Created: 2008-01-11 Last updated: 2011-09-16Bibliographically approved
2. Acute effects on heart rate variability when exposed to hand transmitted vibration and noise.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute effects on heart rate variability when exposed to hand transmitted vibration and noise.
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2007 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 81, no 2, 193-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates possible acute effects on heart rate variability (HRV) when people are exposed to hand transmitted vibration and noise individually and simultaneously. METHODS: Ten male and 10 female subjects were recruited by advertisement. Subjects completed a questionnaire concerning their work environment, general health, medication, hearing, and physical activity level. The test started with the subject resting for 15 min while sitting down. After resting, they were exposed to one of four exposure conditions: (1) only vibration; (2) only noise; (3) both noise and vibration; or (4) a control condition of exposure to the static load only. All four exposures lasted 15 min and the resting time between the exposures was 30 min. A continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) signal was recorded and the following HRV parameters were calculated: total spectral power (P(TOT)); the spectral power of the very low frequency component (P(VLF)); the low frequency component (P(LF)); the high frequency component (P(HF)); and the ratio LF/HF. RESULTS: Exposure to only vibration resulted in a lower P(TOT) compared to static load, whereas exposure to only noise resulted in a higher P(TOT). The mean values of P(TOT), P(VLF), P(LF), and P(HF) were lowest during exposure to vibration and simultaneous exposure to vibration and noise. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to vibration and/or noise acutely affects HRV compared to standing without these exposures. Being exposed to vibration only and being exposed to noise only seem to generate opposite effects. Compared to no exposure, P(TOT) was reduced during vibration exposure and increased during noise exposure.

Keyword
Vibration exposure, HRV, Noise, ANS
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16950 (URN)10.1007/s00420-007-0205-0 (DOI)17541625 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-11-14 Created: 2007-11-14 Last updated: 2013-03-22Bibliographically approved
3. Fifty-year-follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fifty-year-follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality
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2009 (English)In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 66, no 4, 264-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This study investigates both general mortality and mortality from myocardial infarction among men employed in iron-ore mines in Sweden.

Methods: The mortality of employees (surface and underground workers) at the iron-ore mines in Malmberget and Kiruna, Sweden was investigated. The study cohort comprised men who had been employed for at least 1 year between 1923 and 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Indirect standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for four main causes. Mortality specifically from myocardial infarction was also analysed.

Results: 4504 deaths in the cohort gave an SMR for total mortality of 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). Mortality was significantly higher for lung cancer (SMR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.97). There was an increased risk of injuries and poisonings (SMR 1.34, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.46) and respiratory diseases (SMR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28). There were 1477 cases of myocardial infarction, resulting in an SMR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.18). SMR was higher (1.35, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.50) for men aged ≤60 years than for those >60 years of age (1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13).

Conclusions: Mortality from myocardial infarction was higher than expected. There was also an increased risk of death from injuries and poisonings, lung cancer and respiratory diseases, as well as higher general mortality. Our findings support the results of previous studies that there is an association between working in the mining industry and adverse health outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BMJ Publishing Group, 2009
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3586 (URN)10.1136/oem.2008.040147 (DOI)19017687 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-11-06 Created: 2008-11-06 Last updated: 2012-08-09Bibliographically approved
4. Myocardial infarction mortality in relation to exposure to vibration and dust among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Myocardial infarction mortality in relation to exposure to vibration and dust among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden
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(English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3587 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-06 Created: 2008-11-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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