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Essays on environmental and development economics: Public policy, resource prices and global warming
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of four self-contained papers, which are all related to important environmental and natural resource issues from a developing country perspective.

Paper [I] concerns climate policy and addresses the potential welfare gains of introducing a technology transfer from the North (richer countries) to the South (poorer countries). The results largely depend on the environmental policy in the pre- transfer resource allocation and, in particular, whether or not the South abates its own emissions. Although the technology transfer is desirable from a “global social planners” point of view, it is shown that the incentives to use the transfer might be weak from the perspective of the North; at least if the South takes its own measures to reduce emissions. However, in a situation where the North is committed to emission reductions according to the Kyoto protocol, it is shown that there will clearly be incentives for the North to use the technology transfer in order to reach the Kyoto targets in a more cost efficient way.

In paper [II], the likely effects of an environmental fiscal reform in Namibia are examined by means of a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The results show that the introduction of an environmental fiscal reform, where taxes on natural and environmental resources (fish rents, energy and water) are recycled to the economy in different ways might give rise to benefits in terms of GDP, employment and income distribution, in addition to the environmental impacts. While subsidizing unskilled labour would give the most favourable outcome in terms of real GDP and employment impacts, a decrease in food taxes might be a more interesting option if GDP, employment, income distribution and environmental impacts are considered in combination.

In paper [III], the value of irrigation water used for different crop alternatives in the Hardap region in Southern Namibia is estimated. The study finds that all crop alternatives that farmers in the region currently choose among, will remain financially viable after the planned increases in user charges. However, if full cost recovery is to be achieved in the future, substantial changes in the agricultural production will most likely be necessary. The method is also extended in order to study the potential effects on total water demand if further increases in user charges are implemented.

Paper [IV] studies the likely effects of exogenous international food and oil price shocks on the Namibian economy. This is particularly interesting in a country where the domestic consumption of corn and petroleum products is mainly imported, and where water scarcity represents one of the main constraints to agricultural expansion. The results show that the Namibian economy will be negatively affected from the food and oil price increases, and water scarcity will further limit the ability of the economy to adapt to international oil and food price increases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Nationalekonomi , 2008. , 27 p.
Series
Umeå economic studies, ISSN 0348-1018 ; 762
Keyword [en]
Climate policy, technology transfer, computable general equilibrium model, environmental fiscal reform, revenue recycling, water scarcity, resource prices
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1957ISBN: 978-91-7264-715-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-1957DiVA: diva2:142566
Public defence
2009-01-30, Hörsal C, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Technology transfers and the clean development mechanism in a north-south general equilibrium model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technology transfers and the clean development mechanism in a north-south general equilibrium model
2010 (English)In: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, E-ISSN 1873-0221, Vol. 32, no 3, 292-309 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses the potential welfare gains of introducing a technology transfer from Annex I to non-Annex I in order to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Our analysis is based on a numerical general equilibrium model for a world-economy comprising two regions; North (Annex I) and South (non-Annex I). In a cooperative equilibrium, a technology transfer from the North to the South is clearly desirable from the perspective of a ‘global social planner’, since the welfare gain for the South outweighs the welfare loss for the North. However, if the regions do not cooperate, then the incentives to introduce the technology transfer appear to be relatively weak from the perspective of the North; at least if we allow for Southern abatement in the pre-transfer Nash equilibrium. Finally, by adding the emission reductions associated with the Kyoto agreement, our results show that the technology transfer leads to higher welfare in both regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keyword
Climate policy, Technology transfer, Kyoto protocol, General equilibrium, Clean development mechanism
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3729 (URN)10.1016/j.reseneeco.2009.12.001 (DOI)000278662600002 ()
Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Environmental Fiscal Reform in Namibia - a Potential Approach to Reduce Poverty?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Fiscal Reform in Namibia - a Potential Approach to Reduce Poverty?
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3730 (URN)
Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-08 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. A Net-Back Valuation of Irrigation Water in the Hardap Region in Namibia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Net-Back Valuation of Irrigation Water in the Hardap Region in Namibia
2003 In: Agrekon, Vol. 42, no 3, 252-270 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3731 (URN)
Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-08Bibliographically approved
4. The Impacts of Food- and Oil Price Shocks on the Namibian Economy: the Role of Water Scarcity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impacts of Food- and Oil Price Shocks on the Namibian Economy: the Role of Water Scarcity
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3732 (URN)
Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-08 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved

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