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Nicotinamide as a repair inhibitor in vivo: single and fractionated X-ray dose studies in mouse skin and kidneys
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
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1996 (English)In: Radiation Research, ISSN 0033-7587, Vol. 145, no 4, 419-431 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inhibitors of adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase, like nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide and other analogues, can inhibit repair of radiation-induced sublethal and/or potentially lethal damage in some in vitro systems. Therefore, we have tested the effect of nicotinamide on repair parameters in vivo in two rodent normal tissues. In skin, the sensitivity to dose fractionation (1, 2, 5 or 10 X-ray fractions in 5 days) was monitored by defining the alpha/beta ratio in the presence or absence of nicotinamide (0.5 mg g-1) in air or carbogen. Pre- and postirradiation sensitization were investigated using an X-ray schedule of 5 fractions/5 days in carbogen alone or combined with nicotinamide given 1 h before, immediately after or 8 h after irradiation. Also, changes in the steepness of the underlying X-ray survival curve for the target skin clonogens, reflected by a change in the alpha/beta ratio, were investigated using the neutron top-up design. Underlying survival curves for oxygen +/- nicotinamide were obtained over the X-ray dose range 2.5 to 25 Gy, by administering single X-ray doses and following these with single top-up doses of d(4)-Be neutrons. Finally, in mouse kidney, recovery half-times (t1/2) were obtained by determining the time-dependent disappearance of X-ray damage using a split-dose design of two 6-Gy fractions separated by an interval which varied from 0 to 48 h and followed by two top-up doses from a neutron beam. No increase in alpha/beta for epidermal damage was seen with nicotinamide alone and, although sensitization was observed when the drug was given 1 h before irradiation, no postirradiation sensitization was detected. In kidney, there was no significant difference in the proportion of total repairable damage or in the half-life of recovery between treatments given with or without nicotinamide. Therefore, no decrease in normal tissue tolerance should be observed with the use of nicotinamide in clinical radiotherapy resulting either from reduced sparing with dose fractionation or from an increase in residual damage when shortening the interfraction interval. Finally, unless repair of radiation damage in normal tissues in vivo differs markedly from that of tumors, it is unlikely that the large sensitization seen in rodent tumors at 1.5 to 2 Gy per fraction, with carbogen and nicotinamide, can be attributed to nicotinamide acting as a repair inhibitor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1996. Vol. 145, no 4, 419-431 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3777PubMedID: 8600502OAI: diva2:142645
Available from: 2004-03-11 Created: 2004-03-11 Last updated: 2010-08-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. ARCON in experimental and clinical radiotherapy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ARCON in experimental and clinical radiotherapy
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

xHypoxia and repopulation of tumour clonogens are two important determinants of treatment outcome in radiotherapy. In general clinical evidence indicates that loco-regional control may be reduced with long overall treatment times and for tumours with low pre-treatment levels of oxygen. Experimental studies with normobaric carbogen and oxygen showed a two-fold enhancement of the efficacy of radiation in a mouse tumour model when combining oxygen with treatment acceleration. It was then demonstrated that substituting carbogen for oxygen and adding high-dose nicotinamide (NAM) further increased the effect. These findings became the basis for a multi-factorial approach designed to overcome the radioprotective effect of tumour repopulation and that of perfusion–limited and diffusion–limited hypoxia. The strategy, named ARCON, combines Accelerated Radiotherapy with CarbOgen and Nicotinamide.

Experimental evaluation of ARCON

The therapeutic potential of carbogen combined with NAM (CON) focusing on treatment schedules that use clinically relevant radiation and drug dose levels was evaluated in tumour and normal tissue animal models. Some of the conditions under which ARCON gives the largest degree of tumour radiosensitization and therapeutic benefit were identified. Specifically, NAM-dose level, pharmacokinetics and scheduling, and the effect of NAM on repair processes in vivo were also investigated. The results showed that in conventional and accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen and CON are effective and relatively non-toxic tumour sensitizers. They also demonstrated that tumour sensitization with CON was independent of time of NAM administration but that it was drug dose dependent. Some degree of normal tissue sensitization was observed but even relative to mouse skin a significant therapeutic gain was achieved. The mechanism of action for NAM sensitization originally proposed was that of repair inhibition. In the in vivo mouse models tested, namely skin and kidney, NAM did not alter the rate nor the magnitude of repair of radiation induced damage.

Clinical evaluation of ARCON

In the early 90s, various centres, particularly in the UK, Sweden, Holland and Switzerland, undertook clinical trials of ARCON. The protocols were designed based on detailed considerations of the rodent and human radiation and pharmacokinetic studies. This document also discusses the findings of a phase II non-randomized trial in advanced bladder cancer of accelerated radiotherapy combined with carbogen alone and ARCON. The aim of the study was to establish the feasibility of administering carbogen and NAM to patients and to determine the extent of early and late normal tissue damage. Historical comparisons suggested no overt increase in normal tissue radiosensitivity and the data indicate that ARCON could achieve a therapeutic gain in advanced bladder cancer.

49 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 872
Oncology, ARCON, tumours, normal tissues, radiosensitization, carbogen, nicotinamide, repair inhibition, therapeutic gain, rodents, humans, Onkologi
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-207 (URN)91-7305-582-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-04-28, Sal 244, 7, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00
Available from: 2004-03-11 Created: 2004-03-11 Last updated: 2010-08-11Bibliographically approved

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