ARCON in experimental and clinical radiotherapy
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
xHypoxia and repopulation of tumour clonogens are two important determinants of treatment outcome in radiotherapy. In general clinical evidence indicates that loco-regional control may be reduced with long overall treatment times and for tumours with low pre-treatment levels of oxygen. Experimental studies with normobaric carbogen and oxygen showed a two-fold enhancement of the efficacy of radiation in a mouse tumour model when combining oxygen with treatment acceleration. It was then demonstrated that substituting carbogen for oxygen and adding high-dose nicotinamide (NAM) further increased the effect. These findings became the basis for a multi-factorial approach designed to overcome the radioprotective effect of tumour repopulation and that of perfusion–limited and diffusion–limited hypoxia. The strategy, named ARCON, combines Accelerated Radiotherapy with CarbOgen and Nicotinamide.
Experimental evaluation of ARCON
The therapeutic potential of carbogen combined with NAM (CON) focusing on treatment schedules that use clinically relevant radiation and drug dose levels was evaluated in tumour and normal tissue animal models. Some of the conditions under which ARCON gives the largest degree of tumour radiosensitization and therapeutic benefit were identified. Specifically, NAM-dose level, pharmacokinetics and scheduling, and the effect of NAM on repair processes in vivo were also investigated. The results showed that in conventional and accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen and CON are effective and relatively non-toxic tumour sensitizers. They also demonstrated that tumour sensitization with CON was independent of time of NAM administration but that it was drug dose dependent. Some degree of normal tissue sensitization was observed but even relative to mouse skin a significant therapeutic gain was achieved. The mechanism of action for NAM sensitization originally proposed was that of repair inhibition. In the in vivo mouse models tested, namely skin and kidney, NAM did not alter the rate nor the magnitude of repair of radiation induced damage.
Clinical evaluation of ARCON
In the early 90s, various centres, particularly in the UK, Sweden, Holland and Switzerland, undertook clinical trials of ARCON. The protocols were designed based on detailed considerations of the rodent and human radiation and pharmacokinetic studies. This document also discusses the findings of a phase II non-randomized trial in advanced bladder cancer of accelerated radiotherapy combined with carbogen alone and ARCON. The aim of the study was to establish the feasibility of administering carbogen and NAM to patients and to determine the extent of early and late normal tissue damage. Historical comparisons suggested no overt increase in normal tissue radiosensitivity and the data indicate that ARCON could achieve a therapeutic gain in advanced bladder cancer.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. , 49 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 872
Oncology, ARCON, tumours, normal tissues, radiosensitization, carbogen, nicotinamide, repair inhibition, therapeutic gain, rodents, humans
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-207ISBN: 91-7305-582-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-207DiVA: diva2:142647
2004-04-28, Sal 244, 7, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00
Mirimanoff, René-Olivier, Professor
Zackrisson, Björn, Docent
List of papers