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Temporal variation of wood-fungi diversity in boreal old-growth forests: implications for monitoring
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
2005 (English)In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 15, no 3, 970-982 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Monitoring programs that supply reliable and sufficient information on numbers and types of organisms are essential for following changes in biodiversity. In boreal Fennoscandia, forest-dwelling species are threatened in managed forest landscapes and, thus, are of particular concern for conservation strategies. Wood fungi represent key ecological components in the boreal forest that are sensitive to forestry and widely used as indicators in large-scale forest inventories for identifying valuable forest habitats. Knowledge of their natural dynamics is required for designing monitoring programs to assess the adequacy of conservation strategies. We studied the occurrence of corticoids (Corticiaceae) and polypores (Polyporaceae) over time at different spatial scales in unexploited boreal old-growth forests. Data from 70 downed logs followed during an eight-year period showed that the lifespan of fruit bodies of most species was shorter than four years. Even perennial species followed this pattern, although fruit bodies of some species (e.g., Phellinus spp.) remained vital throughout the eight years studied. Both species richness and species composition on individual logs changed markedly over the eight years due to deterministic succession of species paralleling the wood decay. By contrast, data from the stand scale, i.e., seven 0.1 -ha plots, showed that species richness and species composition of polypores did not undergo any major changes during a six-year period. A majority of all recorded polypore species (80%) were already present at the first inventory. However, although species richness remained constant at the stand scale, corticoid species composition differed between years, reflecting their short-lived, annual fruit bodies. This study suggests that monitoring should be performed at stand scale and focus on species with durable fruit bodies, e.g., polypores. This will provide data that can be used both to detect future changes in biodiversity in old-growth spruce forests and to evaluate conservation strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ecological Society of America , 2005. Vol. 15, no 3, 970-982 p.
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3815DOI: 10.1890/04-0628OAI: diva2:142693
Manuscript title: Spatio-temporal variability of wood-fungi diversity in boreal old-growth Picea abies forests: Implications for monitoringAvailable from: 2004-03-26 Created: 2004-03-26 Last updated: 2012-05-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biodiversity in fragmented boreal forests: assessing the past, the present and the future
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodiversity in fragmented boreal forests: assessing the past, the present and the future
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aims of this thesis are to (1) analyze the predictability (indicators) of plant and fungal species diversity in old-growth forests, and (2) assess the history and biodiversity of woodland key habitats (WKHs) and their potential to maintain species diversity in fragmented boreal forest landscapes.

Predictability was explored in Granlandet nature reserve, an unexploited landscape composed of discrete old-growth Picea forest patches of varying size isolated by wetland, reflecting conditions of insular biota at stochastic equilibrium. Data from 46 patches (0.2-12 ha) showed that most species were rare. However, species richness and composition patterns exhibited a high degree of predictability, which strengthen the possibility to apply biodiversity indicators in old-growth forest stands. Area was a key factor. The increase in species richness starts to level out at 2-3 ha. Large patches host more Red-list species in their interiors than do small ones, i.e. stand size is an important qualitative aspect of old-growth habitat. Nestedness emerged in relation to area but also in equal-sized plots. Structural complexity and habitat quality were important for species richness and compositional patterns, and small habitats of high quality could harbor many rare species. Monitoring of wood-fungi on downed logs showed that species diversity on downed logs changed over periods of 5-10 years and that the occurrences of annual species were unpredictable. It is suggested that monitoring of species with durable fruit bodies (mainly polypores) is likely to be a feasible approach to obtain comparable data over time.

Assessments of biodiversity of WKHs were performed in two areas with contrasting histories of forest exploitation, namely in south boreal and north boreal Sweden. Analyses of the history of 15 south boreal WKHs showed that fire-suppression, selective logging until mid-20th century and abandonment by modern forestry has shaped their forest structure. These WKHs are not untouched forests, they lack key structural components and harbor few Red-list species. Artificial interventions to restore natural processes and patterns are needed to further increase their suitability for threatned species. Modeling analyses of species richness in 32 WKHs in north boreal Sweden, some of which have not been isolated by modern forestry until recently, indicated an excess of crustose lichen species, i.e. WKHs may face delayed species extinctions. By contrast, the results indicate that wood-fungi have tracked the environmental changes. Differences in substrate dynamics between epiphytes on living trees and species growing on decaying logs may explain the diffeence between species groups. The results indicate that population densities of Red-list species were low, which may result in further depletion of species diversity.

Continuing species declines and extinctions are likely if not conservation of WKHs are combined with other considerations in th managed forest landscape. Both WKHs and their surroundings must be managed and designed to maintain biodiversity over time. For a successful future conservation of boreal forest biodiversity monitoring of WKHs must be combined with monitoring of refeence areas.

44 p.
Ecology, bryophytes,  CWD,  edge effects,  fragmentation,  fungi,  habitat destruction,  historical records,  indicator,  lichens,  regression,  species-area relationship,  value pyramids,  woody debris , Ekologi
National Category
Research subject
Ecological Botany
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220 (URN)91-7305-610-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-04-23, Fälldinsalen (N109), Mälthuset, Mitthögskolan, Sundsvall, 10:00
Available from: 2004-03-26 Created: 2004-03-26Bibliographically approved

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Berglund, HåkanEricson, Lars
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