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A 3-year longitudinal study of the effect of physical activity on the accrual of bone mineral density in healthy adolescent males.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
2003 (English)In: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 73, no 2, 108-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has previously been suggested that physical activity predominantly influences the accumulation of bone density before puberty. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of physical activity on the accumulation of bone mass in male athletes between 16 and 19 years of age. The cohort studied consisted of 12 badminton players (aged 16.1 +/- 0.5), 20 ice hockey players (aged 16.1 +/- 0.5), and 24 age-matched controls (aged 16.1 +/- 0.6). The bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) of the total body, spine, dominant and nondominant humerus, head and femoral neck was measured twice with a 3-year interval by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In addition, at the femoral neck, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/cm3) was estimated. At baseline, the athletes as a whole group had significantly higher BMD at the total body (P = 0.03), dominant (P = 0.006) and nondominant humerus (P = 0.009) and femoral neck (P = 0.007) compared to the controls. At the 3-year followup, the athletes had significantly higher BMD at all sites (total body; P = 0.003, spine; P = 0.02, dominant humerus; P = 0.001, nondominant humerus; P = < 0.001, femoral neck; P = 0.001) except for the head (P = 0.91) compared with controls. The athletes also had higher vBMD at the femoral neck compared with the controls (P = 0.01). Furthermore, to be an athlete was found to be independently associated with a higher increase in nondominant humerus BMD (beta = 0.24; P < 0.05) and femoral neck BMD (beta = 0.30; P < 0.05) compared with the controls, during the study period. In summary, these results suggests that it is possible to achieve continuous gains in bone mass in sites exposed to osteogenic stimulation after puberty in males by engaging in weight-bearing physical activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 73, no 2, 108-114 p.
Keyword [en]
Bone mineral density, Peak bone mass, Boys, physical activity
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3840DOI: 10.1007/s00223-002-2026-1PubMedID: 14565591OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-3840DiVA: diva2:142722
Available from: 2004-03-31 Created: 2004-03-31 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bone mass and physical activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mass and physical activity
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Weak and osteoporotic bones in old age are an increasing cause of mortality and painful physical impairment of the elderly, especially in the western world. Bone mineral accrual during childhood and adolescence is thought to play a vital role in preventing osteoporosis. Identifying and optimizing the factors influencing peak bone mass is thus important for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures.

A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential effects of various types of weight-bearing physical activity on bone accretion in young males just out of puberty. The results from our subgroups of athletes consisting of badminton, ice hockey, and soccer players suggest that weight-bearing physical activity gives rise to regional specific bone response that is determined by the degree of impact of the activity in areas subject to mechanical loading (papers I–IV). In summary, the bone is sensitive to loading after puberty in males, and important bone mass gains can be achieved by proper amount and type of exercise.

Another aim of this thesis was to studythe effect of detraining on weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in a cohort of adolescent males who participated in ice hockey and soccer training. Our results indicate that exercise-induced bone mineral density benefits decline, predominantly in weight-bearing bones, after retirement from an active sports career (papers II–IV). High bone density stemming from physical loading might be at least partly preserved even by reduced physical activity at nonweight-bearing sites after about three years of reduced activity (III, IV).

A final aim was to follow prospectively the development of BMD during years of reduced activity in former male athletes, and evaluate whether exercise during adolescence could be associated with fewer fractures in old age. We found fewer fragility fractures in a cohort of 400 former athletes compared to in 800 age-matched controls. Thus, high bone density stemming from previous weight-bearing physical activity may reduce the risk of sustaining fragility fractures in the elderly.

Key words: physical activity, peak bone mineral density, males.

Publisher
50 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 881
Keyword
Medicine, physical activity, peak bone mineral density, males, fractures, Medicin
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-224 (URN)91-7305-618-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-04-23, Sal 9B, 9 tr, Tandläkarhögskolan, Norrlands Universitets Sjukhus, 901 85, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-03-31 Created: 2004-03-31 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved

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