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Rapid loss of bone mineral density of the femoral neck after cessation of ice hockey training: a 6-year longitudinal study in males.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
2003 (English)In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 18, no 11, 1964-1969 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of training and reduced training on BMD in young ice hockey players during 6 years of follow-up. We found BMD gains in the femoral neck in the ice hockey group compared with controls. However, these gains were lost with reduced activity after cessation of career. INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that increasing bone mass by intense physical activity during childhood and adolescence may decrease the risk of osteoporosis later in life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 43 ice hockey players (16.7 +/- 0.6 years) and 25 control subjects (16.8 +/- 0.3 years) were studied at baseline and after a mean period of 30 and 70 months. The groups did not differ in weight or height. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) was measured for total body, femoral neck, and spine using DXA. Volumetric BMD (vBMD; mg/cm3) of the femoral neck was estimated. RESULTS: The ice hockey players were found to have gained significantly more femoral neck BMD than controls (0.07 versus 0.03 g/cm2, p = 0.04) and to have gained femoral neck vBMD, whereas the controls did not (16 versus 0 mg/cm3, p = 0.049) between baseline and the first follow-up. At the first follow-up, the ice hockey players were found to have significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck and total body versus controls (p < 0.05). Between the first and second follow-ups, 21 ice hockey players stopped their active sports career. During this time period, these subjects lost significantly more femoral neck BMD (0.10 versus 0.02 g/cm2, p < 0.001) and femoral neck vBMD (38 versus 4 mg/cm3, p < 0.001) compared with the 22 ice hockey players who continued training. The former ice hockey players also lost significantly more neck vBMD (38 versus 14 mg/cm3, p = 0.009) compared with the controls during the same period. At the second follow-up, only the 22 ice hockey players who had continued their training were found to have significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01), total body (p = 0.04), and spine (p = 0.02) compared with the controls. The former athletes were found to have intermediate BMD at all sites. CONCLUSION: In summary, we have demonstrated fast BMD loss at the femoral neck after decreased physical activity in young men. We conclude that ice hockey training during childhood and adolescence may not prevent the development of osteoporosis of the femoral neck later in life if the activity is not maintained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 18, no 11, 1964-1969 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3841DOI: 10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.11.1964PubMedID: 14606508OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-3841DiVA: diva2:142723
Available from: 2004-03-31 Created: 2004-03-31 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bone mass and physical activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mass and physical activity
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Weak and osteoporotic bones in old age are an increasing cause of mortality and painful physical impairment of the elderly, especially in the western world. Bone mineral accrual during childhood and adolescence is thought to play a vital role in preventing osteoporosis. Identifying and optimizing the factors influencing peak bone mass is thus important for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures.

A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential effects of various types of weight-bearing physical activity on bone accretion in young males just out of puberty. The results from our subgroups of athletes consisting of badminton, ice hockey, and soccer players suggest that weight-bearing physical activity gives rise to regional specific bone response that is determined by the degree of impact of the activity in areas subject to mechanical loading (papers I–IV). In summary, the bone is sensitive to loading after puberty in males, and important bone mass gains can be achieved by proper amount and type of exercise.

Another aim of this thesis was to studythe effect of detraining on weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in a cohort of adolescent males who participated in ice hockey and soccer training. Our results indicate that exercise-induced bone mineral density benefits decline, predominantly in weight-bearing bones, after retirement from an active sports career (papers II–IV). High bone density stemming from physical loading might be at least partly preserved even by reduced physical activity at nonweight-bearing sites after about three years of reduced activity (III, IV).

A final aim was to follow prospectively the development of BMD during years of reduced activity in former male athletes, and evaluate whether exercise during adolescence could be associated with fewer fractures in old age. We found fewer fragility fractures in a cohort of 400 former athletes compared to in 800 age-matched controls. Thus, high bone density stemming from previous weight-bearing physical activity may reduce the risk of sustaining fragility fractures in the elderly.

Key words: physical activity, peak bone mineral density, males.

Publisher
50 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 881
Keyword
Medicine, physical activity, peak bone mineral density, males, fractures, Medicin
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-224 (URN)91-7305-618-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-04-23, Sal 9B, 9 tr, Tandläkarhögskolan, Norrlands Universitets Sjukhus, 901 85, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-03-31 Created: 2004-03-31 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textPubMedhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=14606508

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Nordström, Anna

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