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Pollutant profiles as tools for characterisation of environmental exposure
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is concerned with measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental samples. The POPs consist of several groups of compound with many isomers, hence analysing POPs in a complex environment is a This thesis is concerned with measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental samples. The POPs consist of several groups of compound with many isomers, hence analysing POPs in a complex environment is a challenging task. Studies of the abundance or dynamics of such substances in the environment require careful consideration of several key steps. The environmental and analytical problems must be correctly defined, suitable analytes, sampling strategies and techniques must be selected, the chemical analyses must be reproducible and accurate, and the data evaluation protocols must be rigorous and appropriate.

The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use of pollutant profiles in order to assess complex patterns of environmental exposure. When combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) a maximum of information may be extracted from analytical data. Nevertheless, good quality data is essential for correct evaluation of the environmental phenomena under investigation. The precision and accuracy of a solid phase assisted liquid extraction method was therefore assessed by comparison to a reference method. The validated method was used in two human exposure studies. The concentrations of PCBs and dioxins were determined in human tissues from general populations in Sweden and Spain. Although it was concluded that the populations were exposed to similar degree to PCBs and dioxins, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the compound profiles differed between the populations. PCA was also used to differentiate between occupationally exposed workers and matched controls and between exposed workers with recent and earlier exposure. In addition, the analysis indicated that the differences in PCB patterns in workers with recent and earlier exposure were related to differences in the metabolic degradation rates of individual PCBs. The PCA model was further used to select PCB congeners that were representative of each group.

Finally, the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a traffic tunnel was estimated by measuring 29 individual PAHs. The sampling periods were chosen to reflect a maximum variation in the traffic composition. An excellent prediction of the percentage of heavy-duty vehicles was obtained using partial least squares (PLS) regression. It was shown by PCA that it might be possible to predict source compositions at other locations with the aid of multivariate statistical tools. Thus, properly gathered pollutant profiles and MVDA may be combined to extract a large amount of significant information from environmental source and exposure data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. , 59 p.
Keyword [en]
Environmental chemistry, Multivariate, PCB, PAH, dioxin, PLS, Environment, road tunnel
Keyword [sv]
Miljökemi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-256ISBN: 91-7305-650-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-256DiVA: diva2:142831
Public defence
2004-05-27, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Umeå Universitet, 901 87 Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-05-04 Created: 2004-05-04 Last updated: 2017-01-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Sorbent-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (Chem-Elut) of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the lipid fraction of human blood plasma
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sorbent-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (Chem-Elut) of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the lipid fraction of human blood plasma
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2005 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 58, no 3, 311-320 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work compares two lipid extraction methods for determining 24 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), seven dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in human blood plasma. The first method was based on conventional liquid-liquid partitioning with chloroform methanol and the other made use of a sorbent (Chem-Elut) to facilitate the partitioning of lipids into a mixture of hexane and 2-propanol. A multi-layer-silica column including acid-and base-impregnated silica gel was used to reduce the amounts of lipid present in the samples before a basic alumina clean-up step and activated carbon fractionation of planar analytes (PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs) and non-planar analytes (including ortho-chlorinated PCBs). Gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the analytes in the two fractions. The wet weight based concentrations obtained by the two methods were in agreement but both methods suffer from large organic solvent consumption. The toxic equivalencies derived for PCBs and PCDD/Fs using the two methods were also in agreement. However, the chloroform-methanol method gave slightly higher lipid recoveries, although with greater variation, than the sorbent-assisted method. Nevertheless, despite giving lower lipid recoveries, the sorbent-assisted method has advantages in ease of use and applicability to whole blood samples. The formation of emulsions was avoided with the Chem-Elut method, which probably explains the lower variability in the lipid determinations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Pergamon Press, 2005
Keyword
analysis, lipid determination, PCB, PCDD, PCDF, Bligh and Dyer, hydromatrix
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13246 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.07.037 (DOI)000226272800010 ()
Available from: 2007-05-07 Created: 2007-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Multivariate data evaluation of PCB and dioxin profiles in the general population in Sweden and Spain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multivariate data evaluation of PCB and dioxin profiles in the general population in Sweden and Spain
Show others...
2000 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 40, no 9-11, 1083-1088 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thirty-three polychlorinated biphenyls and 20 dioxin-like congeners were determined by GC–MS in blood and adipose tissue samples from two general population groups, one in Spain (n=35) and one in Sweden (n=28). The results were evaluated by multivariate projection (Simca), after normalisation to the most abundant and stable congener in each data set, in order to reveal differences in the “national” congener profiles. The mean values of each population group did not differ significantly. The sum of PCBs in the Spanish was 1450 ng/g and in the Swedish 1310 ng/g. The sum of the dioxin-like compounds in Spain was 1180 pg/g and in Sweden 804 pg/g. The congener profiles differed between the countries. Mainly the higher chlorinated congeners for both the dioxin-like compounds and the PCBs are more dominant in the Spanish group compared to the Swedish.

National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-8951 (URN)10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00356-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-02-22 Created: 2008-02-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Characterisation and determination of profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a traffic tunnel in Gothenburg, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation and determination of profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a traffic tunnel in Gothenburg, Sweden
2001 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 35, no 36, 6361-6369 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentrations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hydrocarbons (HCs), particulate matter (PM 1, 2.5 and 10 μm) and total suspended particles (TSPs) were measured in a traffic tunnel in Gothenburg, Sweden. Emission factors (EFs) were also calculated. These variables are assumed to provide good estimates of average vehicle emissions, since all types of vehicle, using all types of fuel, pass through this tunnel. It was shown that the majority of particle-associated PAHs were found on particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <1 μm. The concentrations of PAHs were one order higher in magnitude in air samples from the tunnel than in air samples at two urban locations. However, the PAH profiles of air samples from the tunnel and the urban sites were similar. This was demonstrated using principal component analysis (PCA). Finally, and notably, there was no significant change in the total emissions when the proportion of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) increased from 8% to 24%. Previously, diesel vehicles had been found to release larger quantities of PAHs and related substances. Advances in fuel quality, and HDV motor and exhaust system design during the last decade may have contributed to this promising result. However, it was shown, using partial least squares regression to latent structures (PLS), that some of the parameters measured displayed correlations with the proportions of HDVs and light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Concentrations of total HCs, TSPs, dibenzothiopene, phenantrene, anthracene and monomethyl-derivatives of phenantrene and anthracene were all correlated to the proportion of HDVs. The concentrations of naphthalene, some mono- and dimethylnaphthalenes and most large PAHs (with 5–7 fused rings) were correlated to the proportion of LDVs.

Keyword
Analysis, Characterisation, Principal component analysis, PLS, Gasoline, Diesel, Emission factors
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-8896 (URN)doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00389-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-02-19 Created: 2008-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Identification of markers for PCB exposure in plasma from Swedish construction workers removing old elastic sealants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of markers for PCB exposure in plasma from Swedish construction workers removing old elastic sealants
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-3921 (URN)
Available from: 2004-05-04 Created: 2004-05-04Bibliographically approved

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