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Motivation and episodic memory performance
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In everyday life, motivation and learning are connected like music and dancing. Many educators realize this and work hard to improve their students' motivation. A motivated student may repeat and self-rehearse the content of a chapter more often, which leads to better learning. However, from a cognitive psychology point of view, it is still uncertain if motivation without differences in repetition or attention, affects episodic memory performance. That is, would a motivated student perform better compared to a less motivated peer if they both have same level of previous knowledge, attention and rehearsal? The number of studies in this field is scarce, and some studies are limited by methodological issues, and others indicate that motivation does not affect episodic memory performance. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop a motivational instruction that facilitates or affects memory performance, and to characterize the underlying mechanisms of this potential effect. Study I examined if reward competition would affect word and source recall as well as word recognition. Following the self-determination theory of motivation, Study I also included subjective ratings of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The results showed dissociation between experienced motivation and actual memory performance. Study II involved goal-setting and ego-involvement (stereotype threat) as motivators in the context of a word recall task. The results showed that goals and ego-involvement had no effect on performance. Study III manipulated competition motivation by a combination of group process (group vs. individual) and chance of winning (high vs. low) to in two experiments. The results suggested that both chance of winning and group process can affect episodic memory performance. Study IV extended these findings by showing a complex interaction among group process, chance of winning, and gender. Specifically, male participants were more subjected to group process and chance of winning than female participants in memory performance. Taken together, the present studies show that memory performance is relatively impervious to motivational influence, but that a combination of reward competition, group process and chance of winning can affect episodic recall performance. Presumably, the underlying mechanisms through which motivation affects episodic memory performance is that motivated participants generate more possible items to familiarize themselves with during memory retrieval than less motivated participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Psykologi , 2004. , 47 p.
Keyword [en]
Psychology, Motivation, Memory Performance
Keyword [sv]
Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-304ISBN: 91-7305-721-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-304DiVA: diva2:143015
Public defence
2004-09-28, Samhällsvetarhuset, Hörsal B, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-09-01 Created: 2004-09-01 Last updated: 2011-06-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Rewarded remembering: dissociations between self-rated motivation and memory performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rewarded remembering: dissociations between self-rated motivation and memory performance
2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 4, 323-330 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People often claim that they perform better in memory performance tasks when they are more motivated. However, past research has shown minimal effects of motivation on memory performance when factors contributing to item-specific biases during encoding and retrieval are taken into account. The purpose of the present study was to examine the generality of this apparent dissociation by using more sensitive measures of experienced motivation and memory performance. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through competition instructions, and subjective ratings of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were obtained before and after study instructions. Participants studied a series of words, and memory performance was assessed by content recall (Experiment 1) and source recall (Experiment 2). Both experiments showed dissociation between subjective ratings of extrinsic motivation and actual memory performance, so that competition increased self-rated extrinsic motivation but had no effects on memory performance, including source recall. Inconsistent with most people's expectations, the findings suggest that extrinsic motivation has minimal effects on memory performance.

Keyword
self-rated motivation, memory performance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13990 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00462.x (DOI)
Available from: 2007-05-21 Created: 2007-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Ego-Involved Goal Setting and Memory Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ego-Involved Goal Setting and Memory Performance
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4057 (URN)
Available from: 2004-09-01 Created: 2004-09-01 Last updated: 2009-08-11Bibliographically approved
3. Motivation and memory: Chance of winning in social and individual recall competition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivation and memory: Chance of winning in social and individual recall competition
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4058 (URN)
Available from: 2004-09-01 Created: 2004-09-01 Last updated: 2009-08-11Bibliographically approved
4. Motivational effects on memory: Chance of winning, group structure and gender
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational effects on memory: Chance of winning, group structure and gender
2004 (English)In: Umeå Psychological Reports, ISSN 1650-8653, no 5, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Past research has produced minimal effects of motivation on episodicmemory performance. In the cases where a reliable effect has beenreported, the effects can be attributed to item-specific biases in encodingor rehearsal. Furthermore, the motivators used in previous research havebeen narrow in scope to capture the multifaceted aspects of motivation.Either they have ignored the self or assumed that manipulations of theself are sufficient to create powerful motivators. Also, the motivatorspreviously used have ignored both social and gender issues. The presentstudy aimed to cover these limitations in the field, by letting males andfemales participate in a memory competition with either high (.25) orlow (.01) chance of winning, and in a team or individual format. Theresults showed a three-way interaction between chance of winning, groupstructure, and gender. Furthermore, males in the high-chance group wereaffected by group structure, whereas females were not affected at all. The results are discussed in terms of early motivational thoughts (i.e.,hedonism and voluntarism), and group structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2004
Keyword
motivation, chance of winning, episodic memory performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4059 (URN)
Available from: 2004-09-01 Created: 2004-09-01 Last updated: 2009-08-11Bibliographically approved

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