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Cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurofilament light in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
2005 (English)In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 67, no 4, 264-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a chronic relapsing-remitting animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Neurofilament light (NF-L), a structural protein expressed in neuronal cells can be used to quantify the amount of neuronal damage in MS patients. An immunoassay was used to measure levels of neurofilament light in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE. Significantly increased levels of neurofilament were found in the immunized animals compared to the controls, strengthening the similarities in the diseases and the progression pattern between the animal model and MS. The turnover of NF-L during this disease is increased since significantly elevated levels also were identified in the spinal cord of the diseased animals and immunohistochemistry gave support for this observation. Monitoring neurofilament levels in EAE can be used to follow disease progression and effects of therapy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 67, no 4, 264-268 p.
Keyword [en]
Encephalomyelitis, Cerebrospinal fluid, Autoimmune
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4218DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.06.031PubMedID: 16182933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-4218DiVA: diva2:143221
Available from: 2004-11-09 Created: 2004-11-09 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Neurofilament light as a marker for neurodegenerative diseases
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neurofilament light as a marker for neurodegenerative diseases
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Neurofilaments are the main cytoskeletal constituents in neuronal cells. They are belived to be important for maintaining the structural integrity and calibre of axons and dendrites thereby influencing the conduction velocity of nerve impulses.The neurofilament chains are divided into three groups according to their molecular size, neurofilament light (NF-L), neurofilament medium (NF-M) and neurofilament heavy (NF-H). The neurofilaments are obligate heteropolymers in vivo in which NF-L forms the backbone to which the heavier chains copolymerize to form the 10 nm neurofilament fibre.

Different degenerative processes in the brain raise significant interest owing to the increasing mean age in the western world. Such diseases include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, vascular dementia, frontal lobe dementia, progressive supra-nuclear paralysis, multiple system atrophy, low pressure hydrocephalus, and multiple sclerosis (MS).

We have been able to generate six highly specific monoclonal antibodies for NF-L, and four independent epitopes were elucidated using Biacore and V8 protease degradation. Antibody 2:1 and 47:3 were selected components in a two-site ELISA assay for detection of NF-L in body fluids owing to their outstanding abililty to bind the antigen. The assay has a least detectable dose of 60 ng/l and a standard range of 60 to 64 000 ng/l. The assay was validated on its ability to detect changes of NF-L levels in CSF in patients with different neurological diseases. These were cerebral infarction, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, relapsing remitting MS, extrapyramidal symptoms, and late onset Alzheimer’s disease. All the patient groups displayed significantly elevated NF-L levels as compared to the controls. We also tested the assay’s ability to monitor the amount of axonal breakdown in an animal model of MS. The NF-L levels were found to be elevated in rodents with chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, giving a possible tool for monitoring new treatment strategies for axonal protection in MS. When studying a large population based MS material, we found axonal breakdown to be present early in the disease course and the breakdown was observed both in active relapse and clinically stable disease, indicative of ongoing neurodegeneration. NF-L levels were correlated to progression index, that is, high NF-L levels detected early in disease predict a fast progression of the disease. The amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a cytoskeletal protein found in astrocytes, was also quantified and was shown to be a good marker for the more progressive MS subtypes, that is, primary progressive and secondary progressive disease, indicating formation of astrocytic scars and activation of astrocytes.

The test dealt with in this thesis has the potential to identify the slow chronic degenerative diseases with progressive disappearance of nerve cells and their large myelinated axons. There is a significant need clinically to be able to quantify such types of cell degeneration in relation to the progressive disappearance of nerve functions and to relate these different conditions to treatment regimens, disease progress, and prognosis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Klinisk mikrobiologi, 2004. 69 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 930
Keyword
Immunology, Neurofilament protein, ELISA, Cerebrospinal fluid, Neurodegenerative diseases, Immunologi
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Research subject
Immunology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-357 (URN)91-7305-769-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-03, E04, 6E, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-09 Created: 2004-11-09 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved

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