Passive air sampling using semipermeable membrane devices at different wind-speeds in situ calibrated by performance reference compounds
2004 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 18, 4828-4834 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are passive samplers used to measure the vapor phase of organic pollutants in air. This study tested whether extremely high wind-speeds during a 21-day sampling increased the sampling rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and whether the release of performance reference compounds (PRCs) was related to the uptakes at different wind-speeds. Five samplers were deployed in an indoor, unheated, and dark wind tunnel with different wind-speeds at each site (6−50 m s-1). In addition, one sampler was deployed outside the wind tunnel and one outside the building. To test whether a sampler, designed to reduce the wind-speeds, decreased the uptake and release rates, each sampler in the wind tunnel included two SPMDs positioned inside a protective device and one unprotected SPMD outside the device. The highest amounts of PAHs and PCBs were found in the SPMDs exposed to the assumed highest wind-speeds. Thus, the SPMD sampling rates increased with increasing wind-speeds, indicating that the uptake was largely controlled by the boundary layer at the membrane−air interface. The coefficient of variance (introduced by the 21-day sampling and the chemical analysis) for the air concentrations of three PAHs and three PCBs, calculated using the PRC data, was 28−46%. Thus, the PRCs had a high ability to predict site effects of wind and assess the actual sampling situation. Comparison between protected and unprotected SPMDs showed that the sampler design reduced the wind-speed inside the devices and thereby the uptake and release rates.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society , 2004. Vol. 38, no 18, 4828-4834 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4289OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-4289DiVA: diva2:143313