PAHs and nitrated PAHs in air of five European countries determined using SPMDs as passive samplers
2005 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 39, no 9, 1627-1640 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The gas phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in the atmosphere of five European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden) were measured simultaneously during two 21-day passive sampling campaigns using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). SPMD samplers, consisting of a pair of SPMDs covered by a metal umbrella, were deployed at 40 locations ranging from remote and rural to urban and industrial, at a similar time during each of the two sampling campaigns (autumn 1999, except in Poland, winter 1999, and summer 2000). The total amounts of PAHs and nitro-PAHs found in the SPMDs ranged between 5.0–1.2×103 and 1.1×10−3–4.0 ng SPMD−1 day−1, respectively. The measured environmental sampling conditions were similar between sites and, thus, the variations in the SPMD data reflected the spatial differences in gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs within and between countries. The gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs found in East Europe (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland 1999) were 10 times higher than those measured in Sweden, Austria and Poland in 2000. In each country, the levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs differed by one–three orders of magnitudes amongst sampling sites. The highest within-country spatial differences were found in Poland where levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs were about one and two orders of magnitudes, respectively, higher in winter 1999 than in summer 2000, probably due to increasing emissions of coal combustion for residential heating. Differences in PAH-patterns between sites were visualized by the multivariate projection method, principal component analysis (PCA). However, no specific source patterns were found, probably since imissions rather than emissions were measured, so the PAHs detected at many sites originated from multiple sources.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2005. Vol. 39, no 9, 1627-1640 p.
Air monitoring, Diffusive sampling, PCA, Spatial variation, Analysis
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4290DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.11.010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-4290DiVA: diva2:143314