umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Semipermeable membrane devices as integrative tools for monitoring nonpolar aromatic compounds in air
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Air pollutants pose a high risk for humans, and the environment, and this pollution is one of the major environmental problems facing modern society. Active air sampling is the technique that has been traditionally used to monitor nonpolar aromatic air pollutants. However, active high volume samplers (HiVols) require a power supply, maintenance and specialist operators, and the equipment is often expensive. Thus, there is a need to develop new, less complicated sampling techniques that can increase the monitoring frequency, the geographical distribution of the measurements, and the number of sites used in air monitoring programs. In the work underlying this thesis, the use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as tools for monitoring gas phase concentrations of nonpolar aromatic compound was evaluated using the compound classes polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs (alkyl-PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) as test compounds.

High wind-speeds increased the uptake and release in SPMDs of PAHs and PCBs with log KOA values > 7.9, demonstrating that the uptake of most nonpolar aromatic compounds is controlled by the boundary layer at the membrane-air interface. The use of a metal umbrella to shelter the SPMDs decreased the uptake of PAHs and PCBs by 38 and 55 percent, respectively, at high wind/turbulence, and thus reduced the wind effect. Further, the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs) to assess the site effect of wind on the uptake in SPMDs reduced the between-site differences to less than 50 percent from as much as three times differences in uptake of PCBs and PAHs. However, analytical interferences reduced the precision of some PRCs, showing the importance of using robust analytical quality control.

SPMDs were shown to be efficient samplers of gas phase nonpolar aromatic compounds, and were able to determine local, continental and indoor spatial distributions of PAHs, alkyl- PAHs and nitro-PAHs. In addition, the use of the SPMDs, which do not require electricity, made sampling possible at remote/rural areas where the infrastructure was limited. SPMDs were also used to determine the source of PAH pollution, and different approaches were discussed. Finally, SPMDs were used to estimate the importance of the gas phase exposure route to the uptake of PAHs in plants. The results demonstrate that SPMDs have several advantages compared with HiVols, including integrative capacity over long times, reduced costs, and no need of special operators, maintenance or power supply for sampling. However, calibration data of SPMDs in air are limited, and spatial differences are often only semi-quantitatively determined by comparing amounts and profiles in the SPMDs, which have limited their use in air monitoring programs. In future work, it is therefore important that SPMDs are properly sheltered, PRCs are used in the sampling protocols, and that calibrated sampling rate data, or the SPMD-air partition data, of specific compounds are further developed to make determination of time weighted average (TWA) concentrations possible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi , 2004. , 93 p.
Keyword [en]
Environmental chemistry, air pollution, alkyl-PAHs, atmosphere, bioavailability, boundary layer, diffusive sampling, emissions, integrative, membrane, monitoring, nitro-PAHs, PAHs, particles, passive samplers, PCBs, plants, PRCs, release rate, sampler design, sources, SPMDs, traffic, uptake rate, wind effect, wood burning
Keyword [sv]
Miljökemi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-378ISBN: 91-7305-782-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-378DiVA: diva2:143316
Public defence
2004-12-10, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Umeå universitetsområdet, Umeå, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-24 Created: 2004-11-24 Last updated: 2012-06-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a semiaquatic plant and semipermeable membrane devices exposed to air in Thailand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a semiaquatic plant and semipermeable membrane devices exposed to air in Thailand
2003 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 37, no 1, 47-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at six sites in the Bangkok region, Thailand, to investigate spatial variations in atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sampling sites affected by various levels of traffic intensity were studied. In addition, PAH levels were determined in a common human food plant (water spinach) harvested from canals and ponds in the sampling areas. Significant differences in atmospheric PAH concentrations between sites were found, with 10 times higher PAH levels in the urban areas compared to the rural areas. Increasing concentrations of 1-methylphenanthrene relative to phenanthrene were found in the urban air close to the city center, indicating that traffic probably contributed to the higher PAH concentrations detected. Due to SPMD's passive sampling technique, their long-term operation and high ability to detect spatial differences, they proved to be suitable for semiquantitative field studies of PAHs. The PAH compounds sampled with SPMDs were mainly associated with gaseous PAHs, while both gas phase and particle-bound PAHs were detected in the plant samples. The relative abundance ratios of some PAHs in the plants were not well correlated with the ratios detected in the SPMDs, indicating that gas-phase exposure made low contribution to the PAH concentrations in the plants. However, similarities in the profiles of 3-ring PAHs between the SPMD and plant samples indicate that gas-phase exchange occurs between the atmosphere and the plants.

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52281 (URN)12542289 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07
2. Wind effects on passive air sampling of PAHs and PCBs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind effects on passive air sampling of PAHs and PCBs
2005 (English)In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicologhy, ISSN 0007-4861, Vol. 74, no 2, 429-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2005
Keyword
SEMIPERMEABLE-MEMBRANE DEVICES, UPTAKE KINETICS, WATER, CONTAMINANTS, SAMPLERS, SPMDS
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4288 (URN)10.1007/s00128-004-0602-y (DOI)
Available from: 2004-11-24 Created: 2004-11-24 Last updated: 2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
3. Passive air sampling using semipermeable membrane devices at different wind-speeds in situ calibrated by performance reference compounds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive air sampling using semipermeable membrane devices at different wind-speeds in situ calibrated by performance reference compounds
2004 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 18, 4828-4834 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are passive samplers used to measure the vapor phase of organic pollutants in air. This study tested whether extremely high wind-speeds during a 21-day sampling increased the sampling rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and whether the release of performance reference compounds (PRCs) was related to the uptakes at different wind-speeds. Five samplers were deployed in an indoor, unheated, and dark wind tunnel with different wind-speeds at each site (6−50 m s-1). In addition, one sampler was deployed outside the wind tunnel and one outside the building. To test whether a sampler, designed to reduce the wind-speeds, decreased the uptake and release rates, each sampler in the wind tunnel included two SPMDs positioned inside a protective device and one unprotected SPMD outside the device. The highest amounts of PAHs and PCBs were found in the SPMDs exposed to the assumed highest wind-speeds. Thus, the SPMD sampling rates increased with increasing wind-speeds, indicating that the uptake was largely controlled by the boundary layer at the membrane−air interface. The coefficient of variance (introduced by the 21-day sampling and the chemical analysis) for the air concentrations of three PAHs and three PCBs, calculated using the PRC data, was 28−46%. Thus, the PRCs had a high ability to predict site effects of wind and assess the actual sampling situation. Comparison between protected and unprotected SPMDs showed that the sampler design reduced the wind-speed inside the devices and thereby the uptake and release rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society, 2004
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4289 (URN)
Available from: 2004-11-24 Created: 2004-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. PAHs and nitrated PAHs in air of five European countries determined using SPMDs as passive samplers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PAHs and nitrated PAHs in air of five European countries determined using SPMDs as passive samplers
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, no 9, 1627-1640 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The gas phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in the atmosphere of five European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden) were measured simultaneously during two 21-day passive sampling campaigns using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). SPMD samplers, consisting of a pair of SPMDs covered by a metal umbrella, were deployed at 40 locations ranging from remote and rural to urban and industrial, at a similar time during each of the two sampling campaigns (autumn 1999, except in Poland, winter 1999, and summer 2000). The total amounts of PAHs and nitro-PAHs found in the SPMDs ranged between 5.0–1.2×103 and 1.1×10−3–4.0 ng SPMD−1 day−1, respectively. The measured environmental sampling conditions were similar between sites and, thus, the variations in the SPMD data reflected the spatial differences in gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs within and between countries. The gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs found in East Europe (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland 1999) were 10 times higher than those measured in Sweden, Austria and Poland in 2000. In each country, the levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs differed by one–three orders of magnitudes amongst sampling sites. The highest within-country spatial differences were found in Poland where levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs were about one and two orders of magnitudes, respectively, higher in winter 1999 than in summer 2000, probably due to increasing emissions of coal combustion for residential heating. Differences in PAH-patterns between sites were visualized by the multivariate projection method, principal component analysis (PCA). However, no specific source patterns were found, probably since imissions rather than emissions were measured, so the PAHs detected at many sites originated from multiple sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2005
Keyword
Air monitoring, Diffusive sampling, PCA, Spatial variation, Analysis
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4290 (URN)10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.11.010 (DOI)
Available from: 2004-11-24 Created: 2004-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Semipermeable membrane devices as passive samplers to determine polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semipermeable membrane devices as passive samplers to determine polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor environments
Show others...
2004 (English)In: Organohalogen Compounds, no 66, 44-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4291 (URN)
Available from: 2004-11-24 Created: 2004-11-24 Last updated: 2012-02-16Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(904 kB)2708 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 904 kBChecksum SHA-1
b82806105d3495626ab0ea2aadf8daf94fece86b87a8dc7e5dcf479e7b72f86fdd5d9a8b
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
Department of Chemistry
Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 2708 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1226 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf