This thesis is a summary of five papers, containing equilibrium and structure studies of aqueous molybdate and peroxomolybdate species. Some of the peroxomolybdate species have also been studied in terms of their dynamic and catalytic properties. The primary objective was to characterize species with potential catalytic activity, with emphasis on thebleach process of kraft pulp. For this, potentiometry, EXAFS and 17O, 31P, 1H and 95 Mo NMR have been used.
The molybdate speciation in 0.300 M Na2(SO4) medium was found to differ from that in 0.600 M Na(Cl) medium, in that the uncharged monomeric molybdate species H2MoO4 was stronger in the sulphate medium, while highly charged species, such as Mo7O24 6-, became somewhat less pronounced.
Diperoxomolybdate species, (MoX2)n (X = peroxo ligand, n = 1-2), dominated the peroxomolybdate systems when sufficient peroxide was available. Both sulphate and chloride coordinated to molybdenum in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and these species were more inert than diperoxomolybdate species without coordinated medium anions. Chemical exchange rates increased upon protonation. A dimeric triperoxomolydate species was the only species found that contained more than two peroxo groups per molybdenum atom. At low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, monoperoxoheptamolybdate species, Mo7X, were found.
Phosphate was found to coordinate relatively weakly to molybdate in the presence of peroxide. Species with four different nuclearities, i.e. (MoX2)nP (n = 1-4), were found. At excess of peroxide, no molybdophosphates were present. Chemical exchange rates were found to be substantially lower than in the peroxomolybdate system.
The aqueous monomeric diperoxomolybdate species retain the pentagonal bipyramidal seven-coordination found in the solid state, although with increased bond lengths. Sulphate seems to coordinate to molybdenum in a monodentate fashion by replacing an oxygen atom. Chloride probably coordinates by replacing an oxygen atom as well. For the dimeric diperoxomolybdate species, a single oxygen-bridge was proposed.
Conjugated carbon double bonds in the side chains of lignin model compounds were found to be hydroxylated or epoxidised by peroxomolybdate species. The addition of phosphate did not affect the type or yield of oxidation products noticeably. It was also shown that hydrogen peroxide, in the absence of molybdate, did not react to any noticeable extent with the lignin model compounds under these conditions.
Umeå: Kemi , 2003. , 73 p.
Chemistry, Molybdate, peroxomolybdate, peroxomolybdophosphate, equilibrium, speciation, formation constants, potentiometry, EXAFS, dynamic NMR