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Criterion-referenced measurement for educational evaluation and selection
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, Sweden has adopted a criterion-referenced grading system, where the grade outcome is used for several purposes, but foremost for educational evaluation on student- and school levels as well as for selection to higher education. This thesis investigates the consequences of using criterion-referenced measurement for both educational evaluation and selection purposes. The thesis comprises an introduction and four papers that empirically investigate school grades and grading practices in Swedish upper secondary schools.

The first paper investigates the effect of school competition on the school grades. The analysis focuses on how students in schools with and without competition are ranked, based on their grades and SweSAT scores. The results show that schools that are exposed to competition tend to grade their students higher than other schools. This effect is found to be related to the use of grades as quality indicators for the schools, which means that schools that compete for their students tend to be more lenient, hence inflating the grades. The second paper investigates grade averages over a six-year period, starting with the first cohort who graduated from upper secondary school with a GPA based on criterion-referenced grades. The results show that grades have increased every year since the new grading system was introduced, which cannot be explained by improved performances, selection effects or strategic course choices. The conclusion is that the increasing pressure for high grading has led to grade inflation over time. The third paper investigates if grading practices are related to school size. The study is based on a similar model as paper I, but with data from graduates over a six-year period, and with school size as the main focus. The results show small but significant size effects, suggesting that the smallest schools (<300 students) are higher grading than other schools, and that the largest schools (>1000 students) are lower grading than other schools. This is assumed to be an effect of varying assessment practices, in combination with external and internal pressure for high grading. The fourth and final paper investigates if grading practices differ among upper secondary programmes, and how the course compositions in the programmes affect how students are ranked in the process of selection to higher education. The results show that students in vocationally oriented programmes are higher graded than other students, and also favoured by their programmes’ course compositions, which have a positive effect on their competitive strength in the selection to higher education.

In the introductory part of the thesis, these results are discussed from the perspective of a theoretical framework, with special attention to validity issues in a broad perspective. The conclusion is that the criterion-referenced grades, both in terms of being used for educational evaluation, and as an instrument for selection to higher education, are wanting both in reliability and in validity. This is related to the conflicting purposes of the instruments, in combination with few control mechanisms, which affects how grades are interpreted and used, hence leading to consequences for students, schools and society in general.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Beteendevetskapliga mätningar, Umeå universitet , 2005. , 150 p.
Series
Academic dissertations at the department of Educational Measurement, ISSN 1652-9650 ; 1
Keyword [en]
Assessment, Competition, Criterion-referenced, Education, Evaluation, Grading, Grade inflation, Measurement, Selection, Validity
Keyword [sv]
Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-492ISBN: 91-7305-865-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-492DiVA: diva2:143588
Public defence
2005-04-29, Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå Universitet, SE-901 87 Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-04-06 Created: 2005-04-06 Last updated: 2009-10-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Grade inflation and school competition: an empirical analysis based on the Swedish upper school grades
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grade inflation and school competition: an empirical analysis based on the Swedish upper school grades
2005 (English)In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 24, no 3, 309-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the connection between grade inflation and school competition by studying graduates from the Swedish upper secondary schools in 1997. The final grades are compared to the SweSAT national test scores. Single school municipalities are compared with multiple school municipalities in order to study if potential intra-municipal school competition leads to grade inflation. We also compare independent schools with public schools. It is found that intra-municipal school competition leads to modest levels of grade inflation. Foremost, non-native students fare better being graded in municipalities with potential competition than in single school environments. Independent schools appear to inflate grades heavily. A male student with average previous educational achievement improves his position in the grade distribution by approximately 15% if graded in an independent school.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Pergamon Press, 2005
Keyword
Criterion referenced grading, Grade setting, Standards, Grade inflation, School competition
National Category
Educational Sciences Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4465 (URN)10.1016/j.econdurev.2004.04.010 (DOI)000229168000005 ()
Available from: 2005-04-06 Created: 2005-04-06 Last updated: 2016-06-08Bibliographically approved
2. Grade stability in a criterion-referenced grading system: the Swedish example
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grade stability in a criterion-referenced grading system: the Swedish example
2005 (English)In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, ISSN 1465-329X (on-lline), Vol. 12, no 2, 125-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on extensive data, and focuses on grades and test scores from upper secondary school graduates over a 6-year period. The result shows that the increase in grade point averages cannot be explained by better achievements, selection effects or course choices, which means that standards have been lowered, which is interpreted here as grade inflation. The grade inflation is most likely an effect of the leniency in the grading system in combination with pressure for high grading, related to the upper secondary school grades' function as an instrument for selection to higher education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informaworld, 2005
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4466 (URN)10.1080/09695940500143811 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-04-06 Created: 2005-04-06 Last updated: 2009-10-06Bibliographically approved
3. Does school size affect teachers' grading practices?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does school size affect teachers' grading practices?
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4467 (URN)
Available from: 2005-04-06 Created: 2005-04-06Bibliographically approved
4. The reliability and validity of the grade point average as instrument for selection to higher education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The reliability and validity of the grade point average as instrument for selection to higher education
2005 (English)In: Cadmo: Giornale italiano di Pedagogia sperimentale, ISSN 1122-5165, Vol. 13, no 2, 23-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

After an educational reform in the 1990s, all upper secondary programs in Sweden, irrespective of their orientation, are to give students the basic requirements for higher education eligibility. The grade point average (GPA) is used for ranking students in the selection process. This study empirically investigates grading patterns in upper secondary schools. The purpose is to find out if some programs are higher or lower grading than other programs, and also if the course compositions of the various programs affect the students’ GPA and hence their ranking. The analysis is based on data from all students graduating from Swedish upper secondary schools in 2002. The results show that students in vocationally oriented programs are favoured, both by easy grading and by their program’s course composition, which affects their competitive strength in the process of selection to higher education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Franco Angeli Edizione - Riviste, 2005
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4468 (URN)
Available from: 2005-04-06 Created: 2005-04-06 Last updated: 2009-10-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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