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Writing and revising: Didactic and Methodological Implications of Keystroke Logging
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Keystroke logging records keyboard activity during writing. Time and position of all keystrokes are stored in a log file, which facilitates detailed analysis of all pauses, revisions and movements undertaken during writing. Keystroke logging further includes a replay function, which can be used as a tool for reflection and analysis of the writing process. During writing, writers continuously plan, transcribe, read, and revise in order to create a text that meets with their goals and intentions for the text. These activities both interact and trigger one another.

This thesis includes studies in which keystroke recordings are used as bases for visualisation of and reflection on the cognitive processes that underlie writing. The keystroke logging methodology is coupled with Geographical information systems (GIS) and stimulated recall in order to enhance the understanding of keystroke logged data as representations of interacting cognitive activities during writing. Particular attention is paid to writing revision and a taxonomy for analysis of on-line revision is proposed. In the taxonomy, revisions made at the point of inscription are introduced as ‘pre-contextual’ revisions, and highlighted as potential windows on cognitive processing during transcription. The function of pre-contextual revisions as revisions of form and concepts was ascertained in an empirical study, which also showed that 13-year-old writers revised more form and concepts at the point of inscription when they wrote in English as a foreign language (EFL) than in Swedish as a first language (L1).

In this thesis, a learning method, Peer-based intervention (PBI), is introduced and examined through case studies and statistical analysis. PBI is based on theories about cognitive capacity, noticing, individual-based learning and social interaction. In PBI, the keystroke-logging replay facility is used as a tool for reflection on and discussion of keystroke logged data, i.e. representations of cognitive processes active during writing. In the studies presented in this thesis, teen-aged and adult writers’ texts, written before and after PBI, were analysed according to text quality and revision. Descriptive and argumentative texts in both L1 and EFL were included in the studies. The results showed that PBI raised adult and teen-aged writers’ awareness of linguistic and extra-linguistic features, and that the effect varied across levels of learner ability, text type and language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Moderna språk, Umeå universitet , 2005. , 38 p.
Series
Skrifter från moderna språk, ISSN 1650-304X ; 18
Keyword [en]
English language, writing, revision, keystroke logging, GIS, stimulated recall, precontextual revision, writing development, Peer-based intervention, language awareness, noticing, EFL, L1 Swedish, reflection
Keyword [sv]
Engelska
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
English
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-534ISBN: 91-7305-873-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-534DiVA: diva2:143740
Public defence
2005-05-28, 10:00
Available from: 2005-05-10 Created: 2005-05-10 Last updated: 2015-01-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The LS graph: A methodology for visualising writing revision
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The LS graph: A methodology for visualising writing revision
2002 (English)In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 52, no 3, 565-595 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The writing process has long been a subject for investigation. Until recently researchers have been restricted to written protocols for the analysis of writing sessions. These provide vast amounts of information from which it is impossible to create detailed mental representations of the writer’s movements around the text, revision activity, or pause behavior. Computer keystroke –logging programs, which record all keystrokes and mouse actions, facilitate the collection of quantitative data about text creation. This article presents the LS graph, a novel way of graphically representing and summarizing the quantitative data collected when keystroke logging. Further, the graph can be combined with a detailed manual analysis of the individual revisions that can be undertaken by playing back the logged writing session.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2002
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4577 (URN)10.1111/1467-9922.00195 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-05-10 Created: 2005-05-10 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
2. GIS for writing: Applying Geographical Information Systems Techniques to Data Mine Writings' Cognitive Processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GIS for writing: Applying Geographical Information Systems Techniques to Data Mine Writings' Cognitive Processes
2007 (English)In: Writing and Cognition: Research and Applications, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007, 83-96 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents the use of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for data mining and visualising information about cognitive activities involved in writing. The information can be collected from various sources, such as keystroke logs, manual analysis of stimulated recall sessions and think-aloud protocols. After an introduction to the GIS, an English as a foreign language (EFL) writing session is used to explain how to create the various GIS layers from the different information/analysis sources, and show how they can be easily data mined using the GIS techniques to improve our understanding of the cognitive processes in writing. The illustrative graphs used to provide an insight into the methodology are based on keystroke-logged data, manual researcher-based analyses and coded stimulated recall data that were collected after the writing session. Also a tool for visualisation and data mining, the GIS technique can support analysis of the interaction of cognitive processes during writing focusing on the individual writer, differences between writers or the writing processes in general. Depending on the research question, GIS affords the possibility to aggregate data to the level of writers, de-aggregate data in any way chosen or display data as attributes of individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007
Series
Studies in Writing, ISSN 1572-6304 ; 20
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-18221 (URN)000274236700006 ()978-0-08-045094-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2014-05-27Bibliographically approved
3. Analysing online revision
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing online revision
2006 (English)In: Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing: Methods and Applications, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, 157-188 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents, discusses and illustrates a method for the analysis of revision of form and concepts in online writing. Keystroke logging was coupled with stimulated recall to assist the development of the LS-taxonomy for online writing revision. Revisions are fundamentally divided according to their position in the text and according to their effect on the developing text. Revision occurs either within the previously written text or at the point of inscription. Revisions at the point of inscription are characterised by being only preceded by written text; the revisions occur in the course of transcription. During the writing process, revisions interact actively with pauses and other revisions. The complex nature of discourse in development, the issues of multiple categorisation of revision and the linking of revisions and pauses together as revision episodes, and how these impact upon the use of the LS-taxonomy is ovenviewed. All LS-taxonomy categories are thoroughly exemplified by examples from a corpus of keystroke-logged data of first language Swedish and English as a foreign language (EFL) compositions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2006
Series
Studies in Writing, ISSN 1572-6304 ; 18
Keyword
online revision, pre-contextual revision, contextual revision, revision units, revision episodes, revision taxonomy
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4579 (URN)000274201000009 ()978-0-08-044934-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2005-05-10 Created: 2005-05-10 Last updated: 2013-07-11Bibliographically approved
4. Self-assessment in autonomous computer-aided L2 writing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-assessment in autonomous computer-aided L2 writing
2002 (English)In: ELT Journal, ISSN 0951-0893, E-ISSN 1477-4526, Vol. 56, no 3, 258-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the results of a study carried out in Sweden to investigate the promotion of self‐assessment and reflection in the adult second language (L2) classroom. A method is proposed in which the computer is used first to record a writing session, and later to replay the entire text production in retrospective peer sessions. The method provides the students with an opportunity to look into their own composing processes both linguistically and holistically, as they view and discuss the reasons behind the different actions during the writing process. Results show that after using the method, all writers experienced useful, although different, insights into their own writing behaviours. Furthermore, this method is not restricted to an L2 environment, but is likely to be effective in other learning situations where reflection is useful for the acquisition process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4580 (URN)10.1093/elt/56.3.258 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-05-10 Created: 2005-05-10 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
5. Stimulated recall as a trigger for increasing noticing and language awareness in the L2 writing classroom: A case study of two young female writers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stimulated recall as a trigger for increasing noticing and language awareness in the L2 writing classroom: A case study of two young female writers
2003 (English)In: Language Awareness, Vol. 12, 172-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13641 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2015-01-16Bibliographically approved
6. The uptake of peer-based intervention in the writing classroom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The uptake of peer-based intervention in the writing classroom
2005 (English)In: Effective learning and teaching of writing / [ed] Gert Rijlaarsdam, Huub van den Bergh, Michel Couzijn, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2005, 259-274 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents and discusses a method, peer-based intervention (PBI), in which conscious reflection of key-stroke logged writing sessions is used to improve written composition. Multiple writing opportunities are used together with discussion and observation of the writer’s own and a peer’s text. The method entails the theoretical assumption that the release of cognitive resources in working memory helps writers to focus the attention towards deeper structures of the text under construction as well as towards the writing process per se and thus assist in raising writers’ metacognitive awareness of writing. The chapter reports on a study of Swedish 13-year-olds composing descriptive and argumentative texts in their first language (L1), with and without PBI. The texts were graded and all revisions undertaken during the writing process were analysed according to their impact on the text product. Further, text quality and frequency of revisions were tested statistically in order to delimit the impact of the PBI treatment. The results indicate that the method was generally successful for low L1 ability writers, while high L1 ability writers benefited from the treatment in the argumentative assignments. The treatment further raised writers’ awareness of contents features involved in writing by increased frequency of text-based revisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2005
Series
Studies in writing, ISSN 1572-6304 ; 14
Keyword
L1 Swedish, keystroke logging, revision, PBI, noticing, metacognitive awareness, working memory, social interaction, input at the right level, ‘zone of proximal developmen'
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-11624 (URN)10.1007/978-1-4020-2739-0_18 (DOI)1-4020-2724-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
7. Promoting individualisation and reflection in EFL Writing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting individualisation and reflection in EFL Writing
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4583 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-10 Created: 2005-05-10Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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  • asciidoc
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