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Francisella tularensis inhibits Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of intracellular signaling and secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in murine macrophages.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
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2003 (English)In: Cellular Microbiology, ISSN 1462-5814, Vol. 5, no 1, 41-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microbial ligands, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoproteins, activate Toll-like receptors (TLR) of mononuclear phagocytes, thereby inducing proinflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial activity. We show that Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is capable of inhibiting this macrophage response. Infection with the live vaccine strain F. tularensis LVS rendered cells of the murine macrophage-like cell line J774A.1 incapable of secreting TNF-alpha or IL-1beta and mobilizing an antimicrobial activity in response to bacterial lipopeptide or Escherichia coli-derived LPS. Inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion occurred also when J774 cells were infected with F. tularensis LVS in the presence of chloramphenicol, but not when they were infected with a mutant of F. tularensis LVS defective in expression of a 23 kDa protein that is upregulated during intracellular infection. Purified F. tularensis LPS did not show an agonistic or antagonistic effect on the E. coli LPS-induced activation of the J774 cells. Francisella tularensis LVS suppressed the capability of the cells to respond to LPS or bacterial lipopeptide (BLP) with activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and degradation of the in-hibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaB, was blocked during the infection. Also the LPS- or BLP-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and the transcription factor c-Jun was inhibited by F. tularensis LVS but not by the 23 kDa protein mutant. In conclusion, F. tularensis appears capable of abrogating the TNF-alpha and IL-1 responses of macrophages induced by E. coli LPS or BLP via a mechanism that involves suppression of several intracellular pathways and is dependent on expression of a bacterial 23 kDa protein.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 5, no 1, 41-51 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-4614DOI: 10.1046/j.1462-5822.2003.00251.xPubMedID: 12542469OAI: diva2:143784
Available from: 2005-05-31 Created: 2005-05-31 Last updated: 2009-11-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of Francisella tularensis infection on macrophage intracellular signaling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Francisella tularensis infection on macrophage intracellular signaling
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microbes contain a number of structural components, also known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP), which can be recognized by the host defense system. The PAMP serve as ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLR) expressed on phagocytic cells. Binding of PAMP to TLR leads to activation of a number of intracellular transduction pathways including NF-�B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (MAPK). Activation of those pathways in turn leads to activation of proinflammatory immune responses and antimicrobial defense mechanisms. In this study we show that the intracellular pathogen F. tularensis LVS can induce a proinflammatory response during internalization in both human and mouse macrophages. However, after internalization, F. tularensis LVS effectively blocks all these pathways resulting in no secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse macrophages. In human macrophages, a downregulation was observed, however, there was not a complete block as in the murine cells. Furthermore, the infected cells do not become activated by stimulation with TLR agonists such as Escherichia coli LPS or bacterial lipoprotein. This phenomenon is observed only when the cells were infected with the LVS strain, but not with killed bacteria or specific mutants such as iglC, or mglA mutants, suggesting that not only their presence but also rapid regulation of the Igl proteins are needed. Thus, Igl/Mgl system plays a very important role in mediating these inhibitory effects. To further investigate the role of the Igl/Mgl proteins in the virulence of F. tularensis, we established a novel model for tularemia, infection of Drosophila melanogaster. Using the fly model as a way to mimic the F. tularensis infection in arthropod vectors, which are important for its life cycle, we observed that bacterial mutants in each of the IglB, IglC, IglD, or MglA proteins all showed less efficient killing of the flies than did the parental LVS strain. Nitric oxide, superoxide, and the reaction product of the two mediators, peroxynitrite, all are important for regulation of eukaryotic cell signaling and effectuating bactericidal mechanisms. To this end, we investigated the role of these mediators for the F. tularensismediated TLR-signaling inhibition. We observed that whereas peroxynitrite had little effect on the inhibition, addition of SNAP, a donor of nitric oxide, partially restored the ability of the cells to respond to LPS stimulation and secrete proinflammatory cytokine such as TNF-�. However, since FeTTPS reversed the SNAP-mediated effect, the results indicate that NO forms peroxynitrite intracellular and that the latter molecule is the effector. Together these results indicate that F. tularensis contains PAMP that can activate proinflammatory immune response while the bacteria are located outside of phagocytic cell and during internalization, however, the intracellular bacteria have means to inhibit the activation of anti-bacterial systems of macrophages and block inflammatory responses completely in mouse cells and partially in human cells. This suppression may lead to disruption of synthesis of bactericidal effector molecules, allowing F. tularensis to survive and rapidly proliferate inside phagocytic cells. The ability to suppress the inflammatory responses is dependent on expression of the Igl/Mgl proteins. The Igl/Mgl system is also critical for the ability of F. tularensis to replicate in mammalian cells and in D. melanogaster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Klinisk mikrobiologi, 2005. 55 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 960
Research subject
Clinical Bacteriology
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-547 (URN)91-7305-898-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-05-31, Sal E04, NUS, By 6E, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2005-05-31 Created: 2005-05-31 Last updated: 2012-06-28Bibliographically approved

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