Molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder determined both by genetic and environmental factors. The Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is one of the best animal models of this disease. It spontaneously develops diabetes through a process resembling the human pathogenesis. The strong association of NOD Type 1 diabetes to the MHC region and the existence of other diabetes susceptibility loci are also in parallel with the human disease. The identity of the genetic factors and biological function mediated by these loci remain, however, largely unknown. Like in other autoimmune diseases, defects in tolerance mechanisms are thought to be at the origin of type 1 diabetes. Accordingly, defects in both central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms have been reported in the NOD mouse model.
Using a subphenotype approach that aimed to dissect the disease into more simple phenotypes, we have addressed this issue. In paper I, we analyzed resistance to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in NOD immature thymocytes previously mapped to the Idd6 locus. Using a set of congenic mice carrying B6-derived Idd6 regions on a NOD background and vice-versa we could restrict the Idd6 locus to an 8cM region on the telomeric end of chromosome 6 and the control of apoptosis resistance to a 3cM region within this area. In paper II, further analysis of diabetes incidence in these congenic mice separated the genes controlling these two traits, excluding the region controlling the resistance to apoptosis as directly mediating susceptibility to diabetes. These results also allowed us to further restrict the Idd6 locus to a 3Mb region. Expression analysis of genes in this chromosomal region highlighted the Lrmp/Jaw1 gene as a prime candidate for Idd6. Lrmp encodes an endoplasmatic reticulum resident protein.
Papers III and IV relate to peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Several T cell populations with regulatory functions have been implicated in type 1 diabetes. In paper III, we analyzed NOD transgenic mice carrying a diverse CD1d-restricted TCR αVa3.2b9), named 24abNOD mice. The number of nonclassical NKT cells was found to be increased in these mice and almost complete protection from diabetes was observed. These results indicate a role for nonclassical NKT cells in the regulation of autoimmune diabetes. In paper IV, we studied the effects of introducing the diverse CD1d-restricted TCR (Va3.2b9) in immunodeficient NOD Rag-/- mice (24abNODRag-/- mice). This resulted in a surprising phenotype with inflammation of the ears and augmented presence of mast cells as well as spleenomegaly and hepatomegaly associated with extended fibrosis and increased numbers of mast cells and eosinophils in the tissues. These observations supported the notion that NKT cells constitute an “intermediary” cell type, not only able to elicit the innate immune system to mount an inflammatory response, but also able to interact with the adaptive immune system affecting the action of effector T cells in an autoimmune situation. In this context the 24abNODRag-/- mice provide an appropriate animal model for studying the interaction of NKT cells with both innate and adaptive components of the immune systemα.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Medicinsk biovetenskap , 2005. , 103 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 986
Immunology, type 1 diabetes, NOD mouse, susceptibility loci, Idd6, Lrmp, gene, NKT, CD1d, TCR, mast cells
Immunology in the medical area
Research subject Medical Genetics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-601ISBN: 91-7305-944-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-601DiVA: diva2:143937
2005-11-04, Betula, 6M, University of Umea, S-901 85 Umea, Umea, 10:00 (English)
Serreze, David, Professor
Holmberg, Dan, Professor
List of papers