Cerebrovascular accidents associated with aortic manipulation during cardiac surgery
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Background: Despite the successful development in cardiac surgery, cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) remain a devastating complication. Aortic atherosclerosis has been identified as a major risk factor for CVA. The present thesis addresses this question in relation to aortic manipulation during cardiac surgery, being divided into a clinical (I-II) and an experimental part (III-V).
Material and methods: Consecutive cardiac surgery cases (n=2641) were analyzed. Patients with CVA were extracted from a database designed to monitor clinical symptoms. Patient records were used to confirm clinical data and diagnosis. Subdivision was made into three groups: control subjects, immediate, and delayed CVA, being analyzed for neurological symptoms (I). Patients with CVA who also had been investigated with computer tomography (CT) (n=77) were further evaluated in terms of hemispheric and vascular distribution of lesions. The CT-findings were compared with CVA symptoms (II). An aortic perfusion model was developed using cadaver aorta onto which multiple cross-clamp manipulations were applied (III). Washout samples of perfusate were analyzed by computerized image processing and with subdivision into different particle spectra. The model was further developed with the introduction of intraluminal manipulation from cannula and intra-aortic filter (IV). A technique for macro-anatomic mapping of plaque distribution of cadaver thoracic aorta was developed (V). Variation in plaque density was analyzed in different anatomical segments, monitored by digital image analysis. Hazards associated with surgical manipulation were studied by superimposing cannulation and cross-clamp sites onto the aortic maps in a blinded fashion.
Results: The incidence of immediate and delayed CVA was 3.0% and 0.9%, respectively. Aortic quality was a strongly associated with immediate but not delayed CVA. Left-sided symptoms of immediate CVA were significantly more frequent than of the contra-lateral side. Positive signs on CT were seen in 66% of the CVA patients. Right-hemispheric lesions were more frequent compared with the contra-lateral side and the middle-cerebral artery territory dominated. Aortic cross-clamping produced a substantial output of particulate matter. Manipulation by intra-aortic filter produced a significant washout of embolic particles that escaped the filter, although some particles were captured. Cannulation was an additional source of embolic material. In terms of plaque distribution was the anterior wall of the ascending part and arch of the aorta more affected than its posterior side. However, observing a plaque in the anterior wall of this aortic segment predicted to 83% a concomitant plaque in the posterior wall. Increased age correlated positively with plaque density. The theoretical chance of interfering with a plaque during cannulation and/or clamp positioning was 45.8%.
Conclusions: Both CT scans and clinical symptoms confirmed that CVA after cardiac surgery had a right-hemispheric predominance. The perfusion model resulted in a profound output of material during cross-clamp maneuvers. The intra-aortic filter successfully collected particles but also generated embolic debris on its own. Aortic cannulation was an additional source of embolic debris. Plaques were frequently found in the cadaveric aorta, and there was a high risk of plaque interference during surgical manipulation. As expected, plaque density was age-dependent.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap , 2005. , 42 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 0346-6612
Surgery, aortic atherosclerosis, aortic cannulation, aortic cross-clamp, cardiac surgery, cerebral protection, cerebrovascular accidents, epiaortic ultrasound, intra-aortic filter
Research subject Thoracic and Cardivascular Suregery
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-628ISBN: 91-7305-954-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-628DiVA: diva2:144052
2005-12-02, Sal B, Tandläkarhögskolan, 9 tr, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, 901 85 Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Ahn, Henrik, Professor
Engström, Gunnar, DocentHansson, Magnus, MD
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