This thesis deals with energetic oxygen ions (i.e. single-charged atomic oxygen ions, O+) at altitudes higher than 5 Earth radii (RE) and at latitudes above 75 (toward 90) degrees invariant latitude (deg ILAT) in the dayside polar magnetosphere observed by Cluster. The instrument used in this study is CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry experiment) / CODIF (a time-of-flight ion COmposition and DIstribution Function analyser), which covers an energy range from »10 eV up to 38 keV. Cluster detected O+ with energies more than 1 keV (hereafter termed “keV O+”), indicating that energization and/or acceleration process(es) take place in the dayside high-altitude (inside magnetopause) and high-latitude region. These O+ are outflowing (precisely, upward-going along the geomagnetic field lines), and these outflowing keV O+ show a heated (or energized) signature in the velocity distribution as well.
First, outflowing O+ are observed at the poleward cusp and/or the mantle formed a partial shell-like configuration seen in the velocity distribution. Second, the latitudinal distribution of outflowing O+ (most of them have energies less than 1 keV statistically) observed below 7 RE is consistent with velocity filter effect by the polar convection, while the latitudinal distribution of outflowing keV O+ observed above 7 RE cannot be explained by velocity filter effect only, i.e. this indicates that additional energization and/or acceleration takes place at higher altitudes in the dayside polar region. Thirdly, a tendency to observe outflowing keV O+ for during different geomagnetic conditions is studied. The keV O+ above 9 RE is more often for K p¸5 rather than for K p•3. However the energy of O+ is not dependent on ASY /SYM indices.
Finally, the dependence on the solar wind conditions is also studied. The energization and/or acceleration of outflowing O+ is controlled by both solar wind moments (except solar wind electric field) and strong southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at the time scale of tens of minutes at only higher altitudes. Further examination shows that solar wind dependence is different at three regions: one is the poleward cusp, another is the low-altitude polar cap, and finally the high-altitude polar cap, combining all the results. There is (a) new energization and/or acceleration process(es) at the high-altitude polar cap. On the other hand, flux enhancement of O+ observed above 5 RE is also controlled by solar wind moments (e.g. solar wind electric field) and strong southward IMF, however the ionospheric changes play a more important role on the flux enhancement of O+.
Umeå: Fysik , 2005. , 56 p.
Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions, Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, O+ energization/acceleration, O+ outflow