Regeneration in the adult brain after focal cerebral ischemia: exploration of neurogenesis and angiogenesis
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Background: Ischemic stroke ranks as the third major cause of clinical mortality and the leading cause of handicap in adults. Each year, stroke occurs in about 30,000 Swedes. The severity of an acute ischemic stroke depends mainly on the degree and duration of local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) reduction. Prompt reperfusion improves neurological deficits, spontaneous electrical activity, energy metabolism, cerebral protein synthesis (CPS), and tissue repair, among which cell proliferation (neurogenesis, gliosis) and revascularization (angiogenesis) may have important functional and therapeutic implications.
Aims of the thesis: (1) To establish the photothrombotic ring stroke(PRS) model with late spontaneous reperfusion in adult mice; (2) To explore angiogenesis and neurogenesis in adult brain after focal cerebral ischemia.
Materials and Methods: The PRS model in C57 BL adult mice and the middle cerebral artery suture occlusion (MCAO) model in adult Wistar rats were used. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was delivered into animal after stroke induction to label DNA duplication. CBF, CPS and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF), [14C]–Iodoantipyrine and [3H]-Leucine double tracer autoradiography, and bioluminescence, respectively. Immunocytochemistry / immunofluoresence were performed to detect different proteins. The cell marker colocalization was analyzed by three-dimension (3-D) confocal. The cell counting was performed with a stereological counting system.
Results: The PRS model was established in adult mice by irradiating the exposed skull with a 514.5 nm argon laser ring beam (3 mm diameter, 0.21 mm thick) at an intensity of 0.65 W/cm2 for 60s, with concurrent erythrosin B (4.25 mg/kg) intravenous infusion for 15s. The central cortical region within the ring locus was progressively encroached by an annular ring-shaped perfusion deficit, where lCBF LDF declined promptly to 43% of the baseline value at 30 min post irradiation. The lCBF-IAP amounted to 46-17-58 ml/100g/min, where CPS varied from 57-38-112% at 4h-48h-7days post ischemia. ATP declined at 4h, achieved its maximum level at 48h and was markedly reduced at 7 days postischemia. Morphologically, at 4h some neurons in the region at-risk appeared swollen, at 48h the majority were severely swollen, eosinophilic and pyknotic. Tissue morphology became partly restored at 7 days post stroke, when numerous cortical cells were immunolabeled by BrdU or the mitosis-specific marker phosphorylated histone H3 (Phos-H3). Some of these cells were even doubly immunopositive to the neuron-specific marker Neu N and the astrocyte marker GFAP, as analyzed by 3-D confocal. In adult rats exposed to MCAO, widespread BrdU-immunolabeled cells appeared in the cortex, ipsilateral striatum and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some of which were doubleimmunolabeled by the neuron specific markers Map-2, β-tubulin III and Neu N as analyzed by 3-D confocal. As early as 24h postischemia, BrdU-immunopositive endothelial cells were aligned as microvessels, some of which exhibited distinguishable lumens in the ischemic boundary zone, where VEGF-A, B, C proteins and their receptors flt-1, fik-1, flt-4 were overexpressed at 72h after MCAO.
Conclusion: PRS model in adult mice elicits a dynamic deterioration and then restoration of local CBF, CPS, ATP and tissue morphology in the spontaneously reperfused cerebral cortex at 7d after stroke, where cortical neurogenesis and gliosis occurred. In adult rats with MCAO, neurogenesis occurred at 30 and 60d in the penumbral cortex and striatum. Angiogenesis occurred as early as 24h, which contributed to the spontaneous reperfusion frequently observed in this setting of acute ischemic stroke.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin , 2006. , 80 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1023
neurogenesis, angiogenesis, rats, mice, gliosis, BrdU, CBF, protein synthesis, ATP, penumbra, reperfusion, VEGF, 3-D confocal, photothrombosis, MCAO
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-739ISBN: 91-7264-067-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-739DiVA: diva2:144368
2006-04-21, Sal D, 1D, NUS, UMEÅ, 13:00 (English)
Jolkkonen, Jukka, Research Director
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