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Resonance sensor technology for detection of prostate cancer
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in Europe and the USA. Some prostate tumours are regarded as stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue, and therefore it is of interest to be able to reliably measure prostate tissue stiffness. The methods presently used to detect prostate cancer are inexact, and new techniques are needed. In this licentiate thesis resonance sensor technology, with its ability to measure tissue stiffness, was applied to normal and cancerous prostate tissue.

A piezoelectric transducer element in a feedback system can be set to vibrate at its resonance frequency. When the sensor element contacts an object a change in the resonance frequency is observed, and this feature has been utilized in sensor systems to describe physical properties of different objects. For medical applications it has been used to measure stiffness variations due to various pathophysiological conditions.

An impression-controlled resonance sensor system was used to quantify stiffness in human prostate tissue in vitro using a combination of frequency change and force measurements. Measurements on prostate tissue showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) and reproducible differences between normal healthy tissue and tumour tissue when using a multivariate parameter analysis. Measured stiffness varied in both the normal tissue and tumour tissue group. One source of variation was assumed to be related to differences in tissue composition. Other sources of error could be uneven surfaces, different levels of dehydration of the prostates, and actual differences between patients.

The prostate specimens were also subjected to morphometric measurements, and the sensor parameter was compared with the morphology of the tissue with linear regression. In the probe impression interval 0.5–1.7 mm, the maximum coefficient of determination was R2 ≥ 0.60 (p < 0.05, n = 75). An increase in the proportion of prostate stones (corpora amylacea), stroma, or cancer in relation to healthy glandular tissue increased the measured stiffness. Cancer and stroma had the greatest effect on the measured stiffness. The deeper the sensor was pressed, the greater, i.e., deeper, volume it sensed.

It is concluded that prostate cancer increases the measured stiffness as compared with healthy glandular tissue, but areas with predominantly stroma or many stones could be more difficult to differentiate from cancer. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the resonance sensor could be used to detect stiffness variations in human prostate tissue in vitro, and especially due to prostate cancer. This is promising for the development of a future diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Fysik , 2006. , 47 p.
Series
Resonance Sensor Lab, ISSN 1653-6789 ; 2
Keyword [en]
resonance sensor, prostate tissue, stiffness, detecting prostate cancer
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-896ISBN: 91-7264-153-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-896DiVA: diva2:144945
Presentation
(English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-10-17 Created: 2006-10-17 Last updated: 2010-02-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Prostate tissue stiffness as measured with a resonance sensor system: a study on silicone and human prostate tissue in vitro.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prostate tissue stiffness as measured with a resonance sensor system: a study on silicone and human prostate tissue in vitro.
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2006 (English)In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, Vol. 44, no 7, 593-603 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in Europe and in the USA. Some prostate tumours are stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue, and it could therefore be of interest to measure prostate tissue stiffness. Resonance sensor technology based on piezoelectric resonance detects variations in tissue stiffness due to a change in the resonance frequency. An impression-controlled resonance sensor system was used to detect stiffness in silicone rubber and in human prostate tissue in vitro using two parameters, both combinations of frequency change and force. Variations in silicone rubber stiffness due to the mixing ratio of the two components could be detected (p<0.05) using both parameters. Measurements on prostate tissue showed that there existed a statistically significant (MANOVA test, p<0.001) reproducible difference between tumour tissue (n=13) and normal healthy tissue (n=98) when studying a multivariate parameter set. Both the tumour tissue and normal tissue groups had variations within them, which were assumed to be related to differences in tissue composition. Other sources of error could be uneven surfaces and different levels of dehydration for the prostates. Our results indicated that the resonance sensor could be used to detect stiffness variations in silicone and in human prostate tissue in vitro. This is promising for the development of a future diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

Keyword
prostate tissue, stiffness, resonance sensor
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-19125 (URN)10.1007/s11517-006-0069-6 (DOI)16937195 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2010-02-01Bibliographically approved
2. Resonance sensor measurements of stiffness variations in prostate tissue in vitro: a weighted tissue proportion model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resonance sensor measurements of stiffness variations in prostate tissue in vitro: a weighted tissue proportion model
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2006 (English)In: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, Vol. 27, no 12, 1373-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in Europe and the US. The methods to detect prostate cancer are still precarious and new techniques are needed. A piezoelectric transducer element in a feedback system is set to vibrate with its resonance frequency. When the sensor element contacts an object a change in the resonance frequency is observed, and this feature has been utilized in sensor systems to describe physical properties of different objects. For medical applications it has been used to measure stiffness variations due to various patho-physiological conditions. In this study the sensor's ability to measure the stiffness of prostate tissue, from two excised prostatectomy specimens in vitro, was analysed. The specimens were also subjected to morphometric measurements, and the sensor parameter was compared with the morphology of the tissue with linear regression. In the probe impression interval 0.5-1.7 mm, the maximum R(2) > or = 0.60 (p < 0.05, n = 75). An increase in the proportion of prostate stones (corpora amylacea), stroma, or cancer in relation to healthy glandular tissue increased the measured stiffness. Cancer and stroma had the greatest effect on the measured stiffness. The deeper the sensor was pressed, the greater, i.e., deeper, volume it sensed. Tissue sections deeper in the tissue were assigned a lower mathematical weighting than sections closer to the sensor probe. It is concluded that cancer increases the measured stiffness as compared with healthy glandular tissue, but areas with predominantly stroma or many stones could be more difficult to differ from cancer.

Keyword
image analysis, prostate tissue, resonance sensor
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-19116 (URN)10.1088/0967-3334/27/12/009 (DOI)17135706 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2010-02-01Bibliographically approved

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Jalkanen, Ville

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