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Capacity allocation mechanisms for grid environments
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the past decade, Grid computing has gained popularity as a means to build powerful computing infrastructures by aggregating distributed computing capacity. Grid technology allows computing resources that belong to different organizations to be integrated into a single unified system image – a Grid. As such, Grid technology constitutes a key enabler of large-scale, crossorganizational sharing of computing resources. An important objective for the Virtual Organizations (VOs) that result from such sharing is to tame the distributed capacity of the Grid in order to manage it and make fair and efficient use of the pooled computing resources.

Most Grids to date have, however, been completely unregulated, essentially serving as a “source of free CPU cycles” for authorized Grid users. Whenever unrestricted access is admitted to a shared resource there is a risk of overexploitation and degradation of the common resource, a phenomenon often referred to as “the tragedy of the commons”. This thesis addresses this problem by presenting two complementary Grid capacity allocation systems that allow the aggregate computing capacity of a Grid to be divided between users in order to protect the Grid from overuse while delivering fair service that satisfies the individual computational needs of different user groups.

These two Grid capacity allocation mechanisms constitute the core contribution of this thesis. The first mechanism, the SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS), addresses the need for coordinated soft, real-time quota enforcement across Grid sites. The SGAS project was an early adopter of the serviceoriented principles that are now common practice in the Grid community, and the system has been tested in the Swegrid production environment. Furthermore, SGAS has been included in the Globus Toolkit, the de-facto standard Grid middleware toolkit. SGAS employs a credit-based allocation model where research projects are granted quota allowances that can be spent across the Grid resources, which charge users for their resource consumption. This enforcement of usage limits thus produces real-time overuse protection.

The second approach, employed by the Fair Share Grid (FSGrid) system, uses a share-based allocation model where project entitlements are expressed in terms of hierarchical share policies that logically divide the Grid capacity between user groups. By coordinating local job scheduling to maintain these global capacity shares, the Grid resources collectively strive to schedule users for a “share of the Grid”. We refer to this cooperative scheduling model as decentralized Grid-wide fairshare scheduling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Datavetenskap , 2006. , 34 p.
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 06.38
Keyword [en]
Grid computing, capacity allocation, allocation enforcement, accounting, Grid-wide fairshare scheduling, Web services
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-927ISBN: 91-7264-216-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-927DiVA: diva2:145074
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2012-05-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Service-oriented approach to enforce grid resource allocations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Service-oriented approach to enforce grid resource allocations
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2006 (English)In: International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems, ISSN 0218-8430, Vol. 15, no 3, 439-459 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS) — a decentralized and standards-based system for Grid resource allocation enforcement that has been developed with an emphasis on a uniform data model and easy integration into existing scheduling and workload management software.

The system has been tested at the six high-performance computing centers comprising the SweGrid computational resource, and addresses the need for soft, real-time quota enforcement across the SweGrid clusters.

The SGAS framework is based on state-of-the-art Web and Grid services technologies. The openness and ubiquity of Web services combined with the fine-grained resource control and cross-organizational security models of Grid services proved to be a perfect match for the SweGrid needs. Extensibility and customizability of policy implementations for the three different parties that the system serves (the user, the resource manager, and the allocation authority) are key design goals. Another goal is end-to-end security and single sign-on, to allow resources to reserve allocations and charge for resource usage on behalf of the user.

We conclude this paper by illustrating the policy customization capabilities of SGAS in a simulated setting, where job streams are shaped using different modes of allocation policy enforcement. Finally, we discuss some of the early experiences from the production system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2006
Keyword
OGSA, grid, accounting, HPC
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-9618 (URN)10.1142/S0218843006001426 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2012-02-06
2. An OGSA-based bank service for grid accounting systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An OGSA-based bank service for grid accounting systems
2006 (English)In: Applied parallel computing: state-of-the-art in scientific computing, Springer-Verlag , 2006, 1051-1060 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag, 2006
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5529 (URN)
Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2012-02-06
3. Scalable grid-wide capacity allocation with the SweGrid accounting system (SGAS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scalable grid-wide capacity allocation with the SweGrid accounting system (SGAS)
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(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5530 (URN)
Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2012-02-06
4. Design and Evaluation of a Decentralized System for Grid-wide Fairshare Scheduling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Evaluation of a Decentralized System for Grid-wide Fairshare Scheduling
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing (e-Science’05), USA, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2005, 221-229 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This contribution presents a decentralized architecture for a grid-wide fairshare scheduling system and demonstrates its potential in a simulated environment. The system, which preserves local site autonomy, enforces locally and globally scoped share policies, allowing local resource capacity as well as global grid capacity to be logically divided across different groups of users. The policy model is hierarchical and subpolicy definition can be delegated so that, e.g., a VO that has been granted a resource share can partition its share across its projects, which in turn can divide their shares between project members. There is no need for a central coordinator as policies are enforced collectively by the resource schedulers. Each local scheduler adopts a grid-wide view on utilization in order to steer local resource utilization to not only maintain local resource shares but also to contribute to maintaining global shares across the entire set of grid resources. Share enforcement is addressed by an algorithm that calculates simple priority values, thus simplifying integration with local schedulers, which can remain unaware of the hierarchical share policy structure

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2005
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-9622 (URN)10.1109/E-SCIENCE.2005.27 (DOI)
Conference
First International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing, 1 july 2005
Available from: 2008-05-05 Created: 2008-05-05 Last updated: 2013-03-18Bibliographically approved

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