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Äldre människors berättelser om att bli och vara gammal tolkade utifrån genus- och etnicitetsperspektiv
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
2007 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of the five studies that make up this thesis is to elucidate constructions of being old from the perspectives of gender and ethnicity. One of the studies uses quantitative data and four use qualitative data.

The sample in study I consisted of 125 participants from the Umeå 85+ study, aged 85 to 103 years old, who were able to use Likert scales in responding to questions. Studies II and III involved content analysis of interviews with old persons scoring on the extremes of the resilience scale. In study IV, interviews with nine Sami women were analysed using grounded theory. In study V, four interview situations were subjected to discourse analysis.

Study I showed statistically significant correlations between the scales measuring resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence. These scales were supposed to measuring a common dimension, which is here interpreted as “inner strength”. There was a significant correlation between women’s “inner strength” and perceived mental health.

The femininities found were associated with “being connected”, “being an actor”, “living in the shadow of others” and “being alienated”. The masculinities found were associated with “being in the male centre”, “striving to maintain the male facade” and “being related”. The femininity associated with “being an actor” and the masculinity associated with “being in the male centre” were pronounced in those participants assessed as having high resilience.

Old Sami woman were found to be balancing within various discourses, including being a reindeer owner versus not owning reindeer, being Sami versus being Swedish, speaking in Sami versus speaking in Swedish, dreaming about the past versus looking to the future, being equal to men versus living in the shadow of the male herders, and changing for survival versus striving to retain uniqueness as a Sami.

Study V revealed that shifts in power between the interviewer and the interviewed can be related to the discourses of age, gender, education, body, ethnicity and ideology.

This thesis presents a complex picture of what it means to be among the oldest old. The ageing, gendered and ethicised selves cannot be seen as socially and culturally fixed. For the women, the femininity expressed in “being connected” involved being satisfied, content and having positive relationships. “Being an actor” involved a stress on the person’s own strength and own choices. The femininities experienced as “living in the shadow of others” and “being alienated” generated narratives about dissociation and loneliness. For the men, it seemed important to relate to themselves and to other men. However, the masculinity expressed in “being related” involved an alternative form of masculinity, focusing on the importance of daily work, new relationships, and reflecting on the meaning of life. The Sami women showed strength in being able to position themselves between various discourses, but their narratives also showed tender sadness when they spoke of their longing for the past and for their mother tongue. The reflection on how narratives are constructed by both the interviewed and the interviewer in relation to their access to various discourses of age, gender, education, ethnicity and ideology in different interview situations can be important for increasing awareness of the role of these discourses. Various ways of constructing femininities and masculinities must be studied if we are to avoid ageism developing in society. Analyzing and reflecting on the importance of age, gender and ethnicity from a constructivist perspective may reduce stereotypical descriptions of the oldest old.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. , 55 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1081
Keyword [en]
oldest old, gender, ethnicity, discourse, narratives, content analysis, Grounded Theory
Research subject
Caring Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-974ISBN: 978-91-7264-248-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-974DiVA: diva2:145255
Public defence
2007-02-09, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2007-01-22 Created: 2007-01-22 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old.
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2005 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 9, no 4, 354-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Adaptation; Psychological, Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Aging/*psychology, Female, Health Status, Health Surveys, Humans, Male, Mental Health, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Quality of Life, Regression Analysis, Self Concept
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-6673 (URN)10.1080/1360500114415 (DOI)16019292 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-15 Created: 2008-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Constructions of various femininities among the oldest old women
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructions of various femininities among the oldest old women
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2006 (English)In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 27, no 10, 853-872 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study forms part of the Ume 85+ Study, and the aim was to explore various gendered constructions of femininities among the oldest old women. Femininities are seen as various ways of shaping oneself as a woman in relation to the impact of historical, social, and cultural circumstances. Thematic narratives were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Through interpreting these narratives in the light of gender theories, we were able to discern four femininities: “being connected,” “being an actor,” “living in the shadow of others,” and “being alienated.” The oldest old women displayed complex outlooks on femininities, and no femininity was interpreted as being in the center related to the other femininities. Further research is needed in order to disclose the complexity of femininities related to factors such as social class, ethnicity, and financial situation among the oldest old, and to acquire a greater knowledge of various femininities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere, 2006
Keyword
Activities of Daily Living, Aged; 80 and over, Aging/*psychology, Female, Feminism, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Loneliness/*psychology, Narration, Quality of Life/*psychology, Questionnaires, Self Efficacy, Sweden, Women's Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-6687 (URN)10.1080/07399330600880467 (DOI)17050331 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-16 Created: 2008-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Construction of masculinities among men aged 85 and older in the north of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Construction of masculinities among men aged 85 and older in the north of Sweden
2008 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, no 4, 451-459 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: The aim was to analyse the construction of masculinities among men aged 85 and older. BACKGROUND: All societies have a gender order, constructed from multiple ideas of what is seen as feminine and masculine. As the group of men aged 85 and older is increasing in size and their demand for care will increase, we must recognize the importance of studying these men and various discourses of masculinities. DESIGN: Qualitative explorative. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse thematic narratives. Masculinity theories provided the point of departure for the analysis. RESULTS: The analysis coalesced into three masculinities. 'Being in the male centre', developed from subthemes as: taking pride in one's work and economic situation; being in the centre in relation to others; regarding women as sexual objects; and belonging to a select group. 'Striving to maintain the male facade' developed from subthemes as: emphasizing 'important' connections; having feelings of loss; striving to maintain old norms and rejecting the fact of being old. 'Being related' was formulated from subthemes as: feeling at home with domestic duties; being concerned; accepting one's own aging; and reflecting on life. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates the importance of being aware of the existence of multiple masculinities, in contrast to the generally unproblematic and unsubtle particular healthcare approaches which consider men as simply belonging to one masculinity. Relevance to clinical practice. Diverse masculinities probably affect encounters between men and healthcare providers and others who work with an older population and therefore our results are of importance in a caring context.

National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-19023 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.01961.x (DOI)18205678 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-03-03 Created: 2009-03-03 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Balancing within various discourses: the art of being old and living as a Sami woman.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing within various discourses: the art of being old and living as a Sami woman.
2006 (English)In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 27, no 10, 873-892 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Aging/*ethnology/*psychology, Attitude to Health, Ethnic Groups/*psychology, Female, Health Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Life Style, Narration, Questionnaires, Social Values, Sweden/epidemiology, Women's Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-6686 (URN)10.1080/07399330600880509 (DOI)17043029 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-04 Created: 2008-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Shift in power during an interview situation: methodological reflections inspired by Foucault and Bourdieu
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shift in power during an interview situation: methodological reflections inspired by Foucault and Bourdieu
2008 (English)In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 15, no 2, 169-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents methodological reflections on power sharing and shifts of power in various interview situations. Narratives are said to be shaped by our attempts to position ourselves within social and cultural circumstances. In an interview situation, power can be seen as something that is created and that shifts between the interviewer and the interviewed. Reflexivity is involved when we as interviewers attempt to look at a situation or a concept from various perspectives. A modified form of discourse analysis inspired by subject positioning was used to reflect on power relations in four different interview situations. The analyses indicate that reflection on the power relations can lead to other forms of understanding of the interviewee. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that power relations are created within an interview situation and therefore it is important to be aware of dominant perspectives. Researchers and nurses face the challenge of constantly raising their level of consciousness about power relationships, and discursive reflexivity is one way of doing this. Thus, reflexivity is an important part of the qualitative research process.

National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-19106 (URN)10.1111/j.1440-1800.2008.00398.x (DOI)18476859 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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