Fatal car crash configurations and injury panorama: with special emphasis on the function of restraint system
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Background: Most traffic safety research projects require accurate real world data which is collected in different databases around the world. This is especially important since the results of these projects form the basis for new crash test procedures and standards. In many of these databases the involvement of the frontal structures of the car in frontal crashes is coded by using the SAE J224 practice (Society of Automobile Engineers). There were indications that by using this practice the database would contain an overestimate of the car frontal structure involvement in real world crashes. One purpose of this thesis is therefore to develop a new method for real world crash investigations to better address this issue. One purpose was also to adopt this method in a data collection of fatal crashes in Sweden and examine injury causation mechanisms. Studies shows that the commonly used Hybrid III dummy is not fully reproducing the kinematical behavior observed in frontal sled test with belted PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subject). A human FE-model (Finite Element) might be able to reproduce the behavior evidenced with the PMHS in order to study upper body kinematics in certain types of frontal collision events.
Method: A new data collection method was developed with the purpose to examine actual load paths active in the car front during a frontal crash. An important purpose was to examine if there was a relation between these load paths and injury producing mechanisms. This was done in an examination and analysis of 61 fatally injured occupants in 53 car frontal crashes in a sample area covering 40 % of the population of Sweden. Sample period was one year (1st October 2000 to 30th September 2001). An existing human FE-model was developed and validated with respect to upper body kinematics by using existing frontal belted PMHS tests. This was done by building a FE-model of the seat and seat belt used in the PMHS tests.
Results: A generic car structure was developed which was used in the data collection methodology. By adopting this new method, Small Overlap (SO) crashes emerged as the most common crash configuration (48 %) among belted frontal fatalities. The injury producing mechanism in SO crashes is characterized by occupant upper body impacts in the side structure (door, a-pillar) of the car. This upper body kinematics is induced by both the crash pulse and the asymmetrical three point belt system. Current crash test procedures are not designed to fully estimate the performance of neither car structures nor restraints in SO crashes. In order to develop a better tool for reproducing this kinematical behavior a FE-model of a human body was refined and validated for belted conditions. This validation was performed with satisfying result.
Conclusions: This study showed that by adopting new methods of data collecting new areas of traffic safety could be considered. In this study SO (48 %) crashes emerged as the most common crash configuration for belted frontal fatalities. Approximately ¼ of the fatalities occurred in a crash configuration comparable to current barrier crash test procedures. The body kinematics of PMHS in the SO crashes can be replicated and studied by using a FE-model of a human body in the collision load case model. With this tool possible collision counter measures could be evaluated for the SO crash configuration.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap , 2007. , 46 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1079
Surgery, Deep studies, fatal crashes, small overlap, human FE-modeling, body kinematics, real life safety
Research subject Surgery
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-976ISBN: 978-91-7264-247-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-976DiVA: diva2:145260
2007-02-02, Sal B, 1D, Tandläkarhögskolan 9 trappor, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Kullgren, Anders, Docent
Björnstig, Ulf, Professor
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