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Evolution of asexuality in insects: Polyploidy, hybridization and geographical parthenogenesis
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Asexual reproduction and polyploidy are relatively rare in animals with chromosomal sex determination and always represent a derived condition. To accomplish asexual reproduction several changes in gene expression are required in the mechanism of oogenesis. Polyploidy increases the cell volume and also gives rise to alterations in general physiology. Nevertheless, there are asexual animals that not only survive but seem to be doing better than their sexual progenitors. This is expressed in the distribution pattern called geographical parthenogenesis. Using molecular phylogeny, I here examine the evolution of Otiorynchid weevils, mainly Otiorhynchus scaber and sulcatus in an attempt to trace the evolutionary history and find out what causes the variation in success of different parthenogens. I also evaluate the contribution of asexuality, hybridity and polyploidy as explanations behind geographical parthenogenesis in insects. I conclude that what is called O. scaber is, in fact, a set of geographical polyploids as polyploidy and not asexuality explains the difference in clonal success. I also argue that O. sulcatus is a recently formed clonal species of non-hybrid origin that may well be a good example of a true general purpose genotype. I find little support for asexuality or a hybrid origin as explanations behind geographical parthenogenesis in insects. Finally, I argue that polyploidy in all eukaryotes should be seen as an opportunity for the species evolution, not as a limitation that ensures the demise of the taxa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet) , 2007. , 68 p.
Keyword [en]
Molecular genetics, weevils, geographical parthenogenesis, hybridization, polyploidy
Keyword [sv]
Genetik
Keyword [la]
Otiorhynchus
Research subject
Genetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-980ISBN: 978-91-7264-257-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-980DiVA: diva2:145278
Public defence
2007-02-16, Major Groove, 6L, Molekylär Biologi, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-01-25 Created: 2007-01-25 Last updated: 2011-03-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evolution of clonality and polyploidy in a weevil system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of clonality and polyploidy in a weevil system
2003 (English)In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, Vol. 20, no 10, 1626-1632 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5677 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-25 Created: 2007-01-25 Last updated: 2016-03-01Bibliographically approved
2. MLGsim: a program for detecting clones using a simulation approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MLGsim: a program for detecting clones using a simulation approach
2003 (English)In: Molecular ecology notes, ISSN 1471-8278, Vol. 3, no 2, 329-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5678 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-25 Created: 2007-01-25 Last updated: 2016-03-01Bibliographically approved
3. Polyploidization, hybridization and geographical parthenogenesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyploidization, hybridization and geographical parthenogenesis
2006 In: Trends in ecology and evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, Vol. 21, no 1, 9- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5679 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-25 Created: 2007-01-25Bibliographically approved
4. Asexuality alone does not explain the success of clonal forms in insects with geographical parthenogenesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asexuality alone does not explain the success of clonal forms in insects with geographical parthenogenesis
2006 (English)In: Hereditas, ISSN 0018-0661, E-ISSN 1601-5223, Vol. 143, no 2006, 23-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Asexual forms of invertebrates are relatively common. They are often more successful than their sexual progenitors. Especially in insects, the pattern called geographical parthenogenesis shows that asexuality is important in speciation and ecological adaptation. In geographical parthenogenesis the clones have a wider distribution than the sexual forms they originate from. This indicates that they have a broader niche they may utilize successfully. The cause of this apparent success is, however, hard to come by as the term asexuality covers separate phenomena that are hard to disentangle from the mode of reproduction itself. Asexual insects are often polyploid, of hybrid origin, or both and these phenomena have been argued to explain the distribution patterns better than clonality. In this study we survey the literature on arthropods with geographical parthenogenesis in an attempt to clarify what evidence there is for the different phenomena explaining the success of the clonal forms. We focus on the few species where knowledge of distribution of different ploidy levels allows for a distinction of contributions from different phenomena to be made. Our survey support that asexuality is not the only factor underlying the success of all asexuals. Evidence about the importance of a hybrid origin of the clones is found to be meagre as the origin of clones is unknown in the majority of cases. Asexuality, hybridity and polyploidy are intertwined phenomena that each and all may contribute to the success of clonal taxa. Polyploidy, however, emerges as the most parsimonious factor explaining the success of these asexual invertebrate taxa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Blackwell, 2006
Keyword
Animals, Evolution; Molecular, Geography, Hybridization; Genetic, Insects/*genetics, Parthenogenesis, Polyploidy, Reproduction; Asexual
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-18027 (URN)10.1111/j.2006.0018-0661.01935.x (DOI)17362330 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-11-26 Created: 2007-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Otiorhynchus sulcatus, an autopolyploid general-purpose genotype species?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Otiorhynchus sulcatus, an autopolyploid general-purpose genotype species?
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5681 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-25 Created: 2007-01-25Bibliographically approved

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