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Xylitol concentration in saliva and dental plaque after use of various xylitol-containing products
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
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2006 (English)In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 40, no 5, 393-397 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study consisted of two sets of experiments, one in saliva and one in dental plaque. The xylitol concentration in saliva was determined enzymatically in 12 children (mean age 11.5 years) after a standardised use of various xylitol products: (A) chewing gums (1.3 g xylitol), (B) sucking tablets (0.8 g xylitol), (C) candy tablets (1.1 g xylitol), (D) toothpaste (0.1 g xylitol), (E) rinse (1.0 g xylitol), and (F) a non-xylitol paraffin. Unstimulated saliva was sampled 1, 3, 8, 16 and 30 min after use. The concentration in dental plaque was determined after mouthrinses with contrasting amounts of xylitol (LX = 2.0 g, HX = 6.0 g, and control) and supragingival plaque was collected and pooled after 5, 15 and 30 min. The mean xylitol concentration in saliva at baseline was approximately 0.1 mg/ml. All xylitol-containing products resulted in significantly increased levels (p < 0.05) immediately after intake and remained elevated for 8-16 min in the different groups. The highest mean value in saliva was obtained immediately after use of chewing gums (33.7 +/- 16.4 mg/ml) and the lowest was demonstrated after using toothpaste (8.2 +/- 4.9 mg/ml). No significant differences were demonstrated between chewing gums (A), sucking tablets (B), candy (C) and rinses (E). In dental plaque, the mean values were 8.6 +/- 5.4 and 5.1 +/- 4.0 mg/ml 5 min after HX and LX rinses. Concerning the higher concentration, the values remained significantly elevated (p < 0.05) during the entire 30-min follow-up. In conclusion, commonly advocated xylitol-containing products gave elevated concentrations of xylitol in unstimulated whole saliva and dental plaque for at least 8 min after intake. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 40, no 5, 393-397 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5693DOI: 10.1159/000094284PubMedID: 16946607OAI: diva2:145294
Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2014-07-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology: clinical studies in children and adolescents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology: clinical studies in children and adolescents
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Xylitol, classified as a natural sugar substitute, has for about 35 years been known as an agent that may act against caries. The mechanism of action; how it inhibits mutans streptococci (MS) and the clinical dose-response relationship are not however fully investigated. The general aim of the investigations was to evaluate the effect of xylitol on oral ecology in children and adolescents. A series of experimental and controlled clinical trials were performed in which samples of saliva and plaque was collected and analysed with respect to xylitol content, pH, microbial composition and lactic acid production. In paper I, significantly reduced proportions of xylitol-sensitive MS in saliva were demonstrated after 18 weeks of regular use of two dose regimens of xylitol-containing tablets (1.7g and 3.4g xylitol/day) but the acidogenicity in dental plaque was not affected. In paper II, the effect on interdental plaque-pH of two different single dose intakes (2.0g and 6.0g) of xylitol was evaluated. The higher xylitol dose counteracted the pH-drop significantly (p<0.05) when the chewing was followed by a sucrose rinse while the lower dose did not differ from the control. In paper III, the xylitol concentrations in saliva after use of different common xylitol-containing products (0.1g-1.3g) were investigated. Statistically significant elevations of salivary xylitol levels were demonstrated for all products during the first 8-16 min when compared with baseline (p<0.05) but the individual variation was considerable. In samples of supragingival dental plaque, a high dose rinse (6.0g) increased the xylitol concentrations for a longer period (>30 min) than a low dose rinse (2.0g). In paper IV, it was demonstrated that 6.0g of xylitol in chewing gums, every day in 4 weeks, gave significantly less visible plaque and a significantly reduced sucrose-induced lactic acid formation (p<0.05) in saliva. Furthermore, the proportion of MS decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to baseline. In paper V, the salivary uptake of [14C]-xylitol was compared with a specific assay determining xylitol-sensitive MS and a fair positive correlation (p<0.05) between the two assays was found. In a controlled trial, the proportions of MS and the salivary xylitol uptake decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the xylitol gum test group after 4 weeks compared to baseline which was in contrast to the control gum group. No serious adverse effects were reported in any of the investigations.

The main conclusions from this thesis were: a) various xylitol-containing products increased the xylitol levels in saliva and plaque, b) 6.0g of xylitol could counteract the interdental pH-drop after sugar consumption and reduce lactic acid formation in saliva c) a daily dose of 6.0g xylitol reduced the amount of visible plaque and altered the salivary microbial composition, d) a transient shift of MS strains in saliva was demonstrated during periods of regular intake of xylitol products but no long-term impact was found after its termination. The relatively high amount of xylitol needed for a beneficial effect on the oral ecology calls for a further development of effective and safe routes for administration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Odontologi, 2007. 60 p.
Umeå University odontological dissertations, ISSN 0345-7532 ; 97
chewing gum, dental plaque, dose-response relationship, interdental plaque-pH, oral microorganisms, saliva, xylitol
National Category
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-986 (URN)91-7264-223-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-02-23, Sal B, 9tr, Tandläkarhögskolan, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2009-05-29Bibliographically approved

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