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Chlorinated organic pollutants in soil and groundwater at chlorophenol-contaminated sawmill sites
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mixtures of chlorinated organic pollutants can be found in the soils at chlorophenol-contaminated sawmill, including (inter alia) polychlorinated phenols (CPs), phenoxyphenols (PCPPs), diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxins (PCDDs). These hydrophobic compounds have low water solubility and hence low mobility as truly dissolved compounds. However, they may migrate through the soil at significant rates via co-transport with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and colloids of fine, waterborne particulate matter. In the work underlying this thesis the distribution of chlorinated hydrophobic pollutants between these two mobile fractions in soil samples from five sawmill sites was studied

Soils at five sites at which CPs were formerly used were characterized, and found to have complex profiles of chlorinated hydrophobic pollutants. CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs and PCDD/Fs were present at up to ppm-levels. Furthermore, the relative proportions of the pollutants differed from their relative proportions in the preservatives used at the sites, indicating that they have been transported from, and/or degraded in, the soil at different rates. These organic pollutants have low water solubility and strong affinity for soil organic matter (SOM). The importance of SOM for the fate of CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs in soil was investigated by examining the distribution of compounds between the mobile DOM and the immobile particulate organic matter (POM). The partitioning of CPs between DOM and POM was found to be approximately equal. However, the relative strength of association with POM of groups of chlorinated organic pollutants was positively correlated with their hydrophobicity, and thus increased in the order CP < PCPP < PCDE < PCDF < PCDD.

Despite the weak association of PCDD/Fs with DOM our investigations found that considerable concentrations of these pollutants were bound to mobile fractions (DOM and colloids, >0.2 µm) in both a groundwater analysis and a leaching test. CPs and PCPP were present at up to ppm- and ppb-levels, respectively, and PCDEs and PCDD/Fs at up to ppt-levels. The importance of transport in association with the mobile fraction (DOM and colloids) increased with increasing hydrophobicity e.g. PCDDs were almost entirely associated with fine particulate matter, while CPs were largely found in the water phase and only minor proportions were associated with colloids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Kemi , 2007. , 50 p.
Keyword [en]
contaminated soil, hydrophobic organic contaminant, chlorinated phenoxyphenol, chlorinated diphenyl ether, chlorinated dibenzofuran, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, preservation, mobility, colloid, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, groundwater, equilibrium column test, chlorophenol
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-989ISBN: 978-91-7264-251-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-989DiVA: diva2:145308
Public defence
2007-02-23, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Linnaeus väg 6, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2009-12-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Levels of chlorinated compounds (CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs) in soils at contaminated sawmill sites in Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of chlorinated compounds (CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs) in soils at contaminated sawmill sites in Sweden.
2007 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 66, no 2, 234-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soil samples from five contaminated sawmill sites in Sweden were characterized with respect to chlorophenols (CP), chlorinated phenoxy phenols (PCPP, hydroxylated chlorinated diphenyl ethers), chlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE), chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). The composition of chlorinated compounds in the soil samples was compared to the composition of two preservatives commonly used in the Scandinavian wood impregnation industry: the 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol preservative called Ky-5 and the pentachlorophenol preservative Dowicide G. The levels of CPs in the soil samples ranged from 0.1 to 4500 mg kg−1 d.w., PCPPs from <0.15 to 940 mg kg−1 d.w., PCDEs from <38 to 6800 μg kg−1 d.w., PCDFs from 7.4 to 18 000 μg kg−1 d.w. and PCDDs from 9.9 to 35 000 μg kg−1 d.w. The resulting WHO-TEQ of PCDD/Fs in the soil samples ranged from 0.14 to 3000 μg kg−1 d.w. Despite a wide range of concentrations the congener compositions were similar within tetrachlorophenate and pentachlorophenate contaminated soils respectively. The contamination at each sawmill site may be linked to the use of either a tetrachlorphenol preservative, e.g. Ky-5, or a pentachlorophenol preservative, e.g. Dowicide G. Best-fit calculations were used to compare the chlorinated phenol contents of the preservatives to those of the soil samples. This revealed a positive correlation between the hydrophobicity (log Kow) of contaminants and the ratio of their levels in soil to preservatives. The relative abundance of the chlorinated compounds varied greatly between the five sites studied, suggesting that their transport parameters differ substantially.

Keyword
Benzofurans/analysis, Chlorophenols/analysis, Ethers/analysis, Hydrocarbons; Chlorinated/*analysis, Polychlorinated Biphenyls/analysis, Polymers/analysis, Soil/*analysis, Soil Pollutants/*analysis, Sweden, Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin/analogs & derivatives/analysis, Wood
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12584 (URN)doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.052 (DOI)16860850 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2009-12-03Bibliographically approved
2. Partitioning of CPs, PCDEs and PCDD/Fs between dissolved and particulate natural organic matter, in a contaminated soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partitioning of CPs, PCDEs and PCDD/Fs between dissolved and particulate natural organic matter, in a contaminated soil
2006 In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 40, no 21, 6668-6673 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5700 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01Bibliographically approved
3. Partitioning of chloroaromatic compounds between the aqueous phase and dissolved and particulate soil organic matter at chlorophenol contaminated sites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partitioning of chloroaromatic compounds between the aqueous phase and dissolved and particulate soil organic matter at chlorophenol contaminated sites
2007 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 148, no 1, 182-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The retention and mobility of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in soil is mainly determined by hydrophobic partitioning to dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM, respectively). The aqueous phase, DOM, and POM fractions were extracted and separated from soils at three sites contaminated with technical chlorophenol formulations. Concentrations of chlorophenols (CP), polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPP), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) were determined. The partitioning to POM, in relation to DOM, increased in all three soils with increasing hydrophobicity in the order CP < PCPP PCDE PCDF < PCDD. Differences in partitioning to DOM (log KDOC) and POM (log KPOC) could not be explained by differences in gross organic C chemistry. Black carbon did not contribute significantly to the sorption of PCDDs, whereas >70% wood fibre in one soil resulted in a decrease of log KPOC of 0.5 units for CPs and PCDDs. We conclude that log KOC for both DOM and POM need to be explicitly determined when the retention and mobility of HOCs is described and modelled in soils.

Increasing hydrophobicity of organic compounds increases the partitioning to particulate natural organic matter relative to dissolved natural organic matter.

Keyword
Hydrophobic organic contaminants, Soil organic matter, Dissolved organic matter, Particulate organic matter, Partitioning coefficients
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13670 (URN)doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.029 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-05-14 Created: 2007-05-14 Last updated: 2011-01-11Bibliographically approved
4. Dioxins, chlorophenols and other chlorinated organic pollutants in colloidal and water fractions of groundwater from a contaminated sawmill site
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dioxins, chlorophenols and other chlorinated organic pollutants in colloidal and water fractions of groundwater from a contaminated sawmill site
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5702 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
5. Use of a column leaching test to study the mobility of chlorinated HOCs from a contaminated soil and the distribution of compounds between soluble and colloid phases
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of a column leaching test to study the mobility of chlorinated HOCs from a contaminated soil and the distribution of compounds between soluble and colloid phases
Show others...
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5703 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved

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