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Chloroplast and mitochondrial proteases in Arabidopsis: a proposed nomenclature
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2001 (English)In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 125, no 4, 1912-1918 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The identity and scope of chloroplast and mitochondrial proteases in higher plants has only started to become apparent in recent years. Biochemical and molecular studies suggested the existence of Clp, FtsH, and DegP proteases in chloroplasts, and a Lon protease in mitochondria, although currently the full extent of their role in organellar biogenesis and function remains poorly understood. Rapidly accumulating DNA sequence data, especially from Arabidopsis, has revealed that these proteolytic enzymes are found in plant cells in multiple isomeric forms. As a consequence, a systematic approach was taken to catalog all these isomers, to predict their intracellular location and putative processing sites, and to propose a standard nomenclature to avoid confusion and facilitate scientific communication. For the Clp protease most of the ClpP isomers are found in chloroplasts, whereas one is mitochondrial. Of the ATPase subunits, the one ClpD and two ClpC isomers are located in chloroplasts, whereas both ClpX isomers are present in mitochondria. Isomers of the Lon protease are predicted in both compartments, as are the different forms of FtsH protease. DegP, the least characterized protease in plant cells, has the most number of isomers and they are predicted to localize in several cell compartments. These predictions, along with the proposed nomenclature, will serve as a framework for future studies of all four families of proteases and their individual isomers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 125, no 4, 1912-1918 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5704DOI: 10.1104/pp.125.4.1912OAI: diva2:145309
Available from: 2003-09-26 Created: 2003-09-26 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterisation of the Clp Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of the Clp Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Unlike in the greenhouse, plants need to cope with many environmental stresses under natural conditions. Among these conditions are drought, waterlogging, excessive or too little light, high or low temperatures, UV irradiation, high soil salinity, and nutrient deficiency. These stress factors can affect many biological processes, and severely retard the growth and development of higher plants, resulting in massive losses of crop yield and wood production. Plants have developed many protective mechanisms to survive and acclimate to stresses, such as the rapid induction of specific molecular chaperones and proteases at the molecular level. Molecular chaperones mediate the correct folding and assembly of polypeptides, as well as repair damaged protein structures caused by stress, while proteases remove otherwise non-functional and potentially cytotoxic proteins.

The Clp/Hsp100 family is a new group of chaperones that consists of both constitutive and stress-inducible members. Besides being important chaperones, many Clp/Hsp100 also participate in protein degradation by associating with the proteolytic subunit ClpP to form the Clp protease complex. Higher plants have the greatest number and complexity of Clp proteins than any other group of organisms, and more than 20 different Clp isomers in plants have been identified (Paper I). Because of this diversity, we have adopted a functional genomics approach to characterise all Clp proteins in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Our ongoing research strategy combines genetic, biochemical and molecular approaches. Central to these has been the preparation of transgenic lines for each of the chloroplast Clp isomers. These transgenic lines will be analysed to understand the function and regulation of each chloroplast Clp protein for plant growth and development.

In Paper II, an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA was isolated that encodes a homologue of bacterial ClpX. Specific polyclonal antibodies were made and used to localise the ClpX homologue to plant mitochondria, consistent with that predicted by computer analysis of the putative transit peptide. In addition to ClpX, a nuclear-encoded ClpP protein, termed ClpP2, was identified from the numerous ClpP isomers in Arabidopsis and was also located in mitochondria. Relatively unchanged levels of transcripts for both clpX and clpP2 genes were detected in various tissues and under different growth conditions. Using β-casein as a substrate, plant mitochondria possessed an ATP-stimulated, serine-type proteolytic activity that could be strongly inhibited by antibodies specific for ClpX or ClpP2, suggesting an active ClpXP protease.

In Paper III, four nuclear-encoded Clp isomers were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: ClpC1 and ClpP3-5. All four proteins are localized within the stroma of chloroplasts, along with the previously identified ClpD, ClpP1 and ClpP6 proteins. Potential differential regulation among these Clp proteins was analysed at both the mRNA and protein level. A comparison between different tissues showed increasing amounts of all plastid Clp proteins from roots to stems to leaves. The increases in protein were mirrored at the mRNA level for most ClpP isomers but not for ClpC1, ClpC2 and ClpD and ClpP5, which exhibited little change in transcript levels. Potential stress induction was also tested for all chloroplast Clp proteins by a series of brief and prolonged stress conditions. The results reveal that these proteins, rather than being rapidly induced stress proteins, are primarily constitutive proteins that may also be involved in plant acclimation to different physiological conditions.

In Paper IV, antisense repression transgenic lines of clpP4 were prepared and then later characterised. Within the various lines screened, up to 90% of ClpP4 protein content was specifically repressed, which also led to the down-regulation of ClpP3 and ClpP5 protein contents. The repression of clpP4 mRNA retarded the development of chloroplasts and the differentiation of leaf mesophyll cells, resulting in chlorotic phenotypes. The chlorosis was more severe in young than in mature leaves due likely to the developmental expression pattern of the ClpP4 protein. Chlorotic plants eventually turned green upon aging, accompanied by a recovery in the amount of the ClpP4 protein. The greening process could be affected by the light quantity, either by altering the photoperiod or light intensity.

52 p.
Umeå studies in philosophy, ISSN 1650-1748
Plant physiology, Arabidopsis, molecular chaperone, protein degradation, protease, Clp/Hsp100, ClpP, stress response, antisense repression, chloroplast development, Växtfysiologi
National Category
Research subject
Molecular Biology
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-99 (URN)91-7305-507-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-09-26, KB3B1, KBC, Umeå, 13:00
Available from: 2003-09-26 Created: 2003-09-26Bibliographically approved

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Zheng, Bo
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Department of Plant PhysiologyUmeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC)
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