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High-intensity functional exercise program and protein-enriched energy supplement for older persons dependent in activities of daily living: a randomised controlled trial
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
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2006 (English)In: Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 0004-9514, Vol. 52, no 2, 105-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aims of this randomised controlled trial were to determine if a high-intensity functional exercise program improves balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength in older persons dependent in activities of daily living and if an intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises increases the effects of the training. One hundred and ninety-one older persons dependent in activities of daily living, living in residential care facilities, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ? 10 participated. They were randomised to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a control activity, which included 29 sessions over 3 months, as well as to protein-enriched energy supplement or placebo. Berg Balance Scale, self-paced and maximum gait speed, and one-repetition maximum in lower-limb strength were followed-up at three and six months and analysed by 2 x 2 factorial ANCOVA, using the intention-to-treat principle. At three months, the exercise group had improved significantly in self-paced gait speed compared with the control group (mean difference 0.04 m/s, p = 0.02). At six months, there were significant improvements favouring the exercise group for Berg Balance Scale (1.9 points, p = 0.05), self-paced gait speed (0.05 m/s, p = 0.009), and lower-limb strength (10.8 kg, p = 0.03). No interaction effects were seen between the exercise and nutrition interventions. In conclusion, a high-intensity functional exercise program has positive long-term effects in balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength for older persons dependent in activities of daily living. An intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises does not appear to increase the effects of the training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 52, no 2, 105-113 p.
Keyword [en]
Activities of Daily Living, Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Dietary Proteins/*therapeutic use, Dietary Supplements, Energy Intake, Exercise Therapy/*methods, Female, Frail Elderly, Gait, Humans, Male, Muscle; Skeletal/physiology, Musculoskeletal Equilibrium, Patient Compliance, Treatment Outcome, Weight Lifting
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-6317PubMedID: 16764547OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-6317DiVA: diva2:145986
Available from: 2008-01-16 Created: 2008-01-16 Last updated: 2011-02-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fall prediction and a high-intensity functional exercise programme to improve physical functions and to prevent falls among older people living in residential care facilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fall prediction and a high-intensity functional exercise programme to improve physical functions and to prevent falls among older people living in residential care facilities
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Impairments in balance, mobility, and lower-limb strength are common in the growing population of older people and can lead to dramatic consequences for the individual, such as dependency in activities of daily living, admission to nursing home, falls, and fractures. The main purposes of this thesis were, among older people in residential care facilities, to validate a fall-risk assessment tool and to evaluate a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise pro-gramme regarding its applicability as well as its effect on physical functions and falls.

The prediction accuracy of the Downton fall risk index within 3, 6 and 12 months was evaluated among 78 residents, aged 65 years or more, at one residential care facility. The participants were assessed as having either a low or high fall risk according to the index and were followed-up for falls using two different fall definitions related to the cause of the fall. With all falls included, a significant prognostic separation was found between the low- and the high-risk group at 3, 6 and 12 months. A definition in which falls precipitated by acute illness, acute disease, or drug side-effects were excluded did not improve the accuracy of the fall prediction.

The effect on physical functions of a high-intensity functional exercise programme was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 191 older people, dependent in activities of daily living, with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of ten or more, and living in nine residential care facilities. Participants were randomised to an exercise programme or a control activity, including 29 supervised sessions over 3 months, as well as to an intake of a milk-based 200 ml protein-enriched energy supplement (7.4 g protein per 100 g) or a placebo drink immediately after each session. The Berg Balance Scale, usual and maximum gait speed, and one-repetition maximum in lower-limb strength in a leg press machine were followed up at 3 and 6 months by blinded assessors and analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. Significant long-term effects of the high-intensity functional exercise programme were seen in balance, gait ability and lower-limb strength in comparison with the control activity. The intake of the protein-enriched energy supplement did not increase the effect of the training.

The evaluation of the applicability of the exercise programme showed that there was a high rate of attendance, a relatively high achieved intensity in the exercises, and only two serious adverse events, neither of which led to manifest injury or disease, despite that most of the participants had severe cognitive or physical impairments. The applicability of the programme was not associated with the participants’ cognitive function.

The evaluation of the fall-prevention effect of the exercise programme, during the 6 months following the intervention, showed that neither fall rate nor proportion of participants who sustained a fall differed between the exercise programme and the control activity, when all participants were compared. However, among participants who improved their balance during the intervention period, a significant reduction in fall rate was seen in favour of the exercise group.

In conclusion, among older people living in residential care facilities, the Downton fall risk index appears to be a useful tool for predicting residents sustaining a fall, irrespective of the cause of the fall, even with a perspective of only a few months. A high-intensity functional exercise programme is applicable for use, regardless of cognitive function, and has positive long-term effects on balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength. An intake of a protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercise does not appear to increase the effect of the training. Participants who improve their balance function due to the exercise programme may reduce their risk of falling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, 2006. 79 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1024
Keyword
aged, frail elderly, cognition disorders, residential facilities, randomized controlled trials, exercise, exercise therapy, nutrition, predictive value of tests, accidental falls: prevention & control
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-756 (URN)91-7264-072-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-05-05, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-04-18 Created: 2006-04-18 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved
2. Physical exercise for older people: focusing on people living in residential care facilities and people with dementia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical exercise for older people: focusing on people living in residential care facilities and people with dementia
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main purposes of this thesis were to evaluate a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise pro­gramme, regarding its applicability (attendance, achieved intensity, adverse events) as well as its effect on physical functions and activities of daily living (ADL) among older people living in residential care facilities, with a special focus on people with dementia. Furthermore, a main purpose was to systematically review the applicability and effects of physical exercise on physical functions, cognitive functions, and ADL among people with dementia.

A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise programme that includes lower-limb strength and balance exercises in standing and walking, was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 191 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ten or more. One hundred (52.4%) of the participants had dementia. Participants were randomised to an exercise programme or a control activity, consisting of 29 supervised sessions over 3 months, as well as to an intake of a protein-enriched energy supplement or a placebo drink immediately after each session. The effect on physical functions was evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale, usual and maximum gait speed, and one-repetition maximum in a leg press machine measuring lower-limb strength. The effect on ADL was evaluated using the Barthel Index. These outcome measures were followed up at 3 and 6 months by blinded assessors and analysed using the intention-to-treat principle.

The evaluation of the applicability of the high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise programme showed that there was a high rate of attendance, a relatively high achieved intensity in the exercises, and all except two adverse events were assessed as minor or temporary and none led to manifest injury or disease. No statistically significant differences were observed in applicability when comparing participants with dementia and participants without dementia. In addition, the applicability of the programme was not associated with the participants’ cognitive function. Significant long-term effects of the exercise programme were seen regarding functional balance, gait ability and lower-limb strength in comparison with the control activity. The intake of the protein-enriched energy supplement did not increase the effect of the training. Age, sex, depression, dementia disorder, nutritional status, and level of functional balance capacity did not influence the effect on functional balance of the high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise programme. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding overall ADL performance. Analyses for each item revealed that a significantly smaller proportion of participants in the exercise group had deteriorated regarding indoor mobility at 3 and 6 months. For people with dementia, there was a significant difference in overall ADL performance in favour of the exercise group at 3 months, but not at 6 months.

In a systematic review, randomised controlled trials, evaluating the effects of physical exercise among people with dementia, were identified according to pre-defined inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted predetermined data and assessed methodological quality. Ten studies were included in the review and the majority of the participants were older people with Alzheimer’s disease living in residential care facilities. Four studies reached “moderate” methodological quality and six “low”. The results showed that among older people with Alzheimer’s disease in residential care facilities, combined functional weight-bearing exercise over 12 months at an intended moderate intensity seems applicable for use regarding attendance and adverse events and there is some evidence that the exercise improves walking performance and reduces ADL decline. Furthermore, there is some evidence that walking exercise over 16 weeks performed individually, where the participant walks as far as possible during the session, reduces decline in walking performance, but adverse events need to be evaluated.

In conclusion, among older people who are dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, and have an MMSE score of 10 or more, a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise programme is applicable for use and has positive long-term effects on functional balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength and seems to reduce ADL decline related to indoor mobility. An intake of a protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercise does not appear to increase the effect of the training. In people with dementia, the exercise programme may prevent decline in overall ADL performance, but continuous training may be needed to maintain that effect. The positive results regarding applicability and effects of combined functional weight-bearing exercise among people with dementia is confirmed when the scientific literature is systematically reviewed. It seems to be important that exercise interventions among people with dementia last for at least a few months and that the exercises are task-specific and intended to challenge the individual’s physical capacity. Whether physical exercise can improve cognitive functions among people with dementia remains unclear. There is a need for more exercise studies of high methodological quality among people with dementia disorders.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2011. 100 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1396
Keyword
aged, dementia, exercise, frail elderly, nutrition, randomized controlled trial, residential facilities
National Category
Physiotherapy
Research subject
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-39784 (URN)978-91-7459-133-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-05, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-02-11 Created: 2011-02-08 Last updated: 2013-02-07Bibliographically approved

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Rosendahl, ErikLindelöf, NinaLittbrand, HåkanLundin-Olsson, LillemorHåglin, LenaGustafson, Yngve

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