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Contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in different rheumatoid arthritis models.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
2005 (English)In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 52, no 8, 2541-2548 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency between models of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS: We developed a new animal model of arthritis, which we have called local injection-induced arthritis (LIA). In this model, we replaced methylated bovine serum albumin, which is normally used as an immunogen and is injected intraarticularly into the knee joint, with type II collagen (CII) to induce AIA. The severity of CIA, LIA, and AIA in wild-type and plasminogen-deficient mice was evaluated by clinical scoring or histologic grading. Necrosis was determined by histology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: After CII immunization alone, wild-type mice developed arthritis in most of the paws as well as in the knee joints, whereas plasminogen-deficient mice were totally resistant to the disease. Local knee injections of CII or saline slightly enhanced the severity of the knee arthritis in wild-type mice during a 60-day experimental period. Unexpectedly, the plasminogen-deficient mice also developed arthritis in joints that were injected with CII or saline. However, the arthritis was milder than that in their wild-type littermates. Sustained tissue necrosis was found only in the plasminogen-deficient mice after the local injection. CONCLUSION: Our data show that both the antigen and the joint trauma caused by the local injection are critical to explaining the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in CIA and AIA. This further indicates that CIA and AIA have distinct pathogenic mechanisms. The data also suggest that plasmin may be required for the induction of these arthritis models that are critically dependent on complement activation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 52, no 8, 2541-2548 p.
Keyword [en]
Animals, Arthritis; Experimental/*metabolism/physiopathology, Arthritis; Rheumatoid/etiology/immunology/*metabolism/physiopathology, Collagen Type II/administration & dosage/immunology, Disease Models; Animal, Immunization, Injections; Intra-Articular, Knee Injuries/complications, Knee Joint, Mice, Mice; Inbred C57BL, Mice; Inbred DBA, Necrosis, Plasminogen/*deficiency, Severity of Illness Index, Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage, Synovial Membrane/pathology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-6330DOI: 10.1002/art.21229PubMedID: 16052596OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-6330DiVA: diva2:145999
Available from: 2007-12-09 Created: 2007-12-09 Last updated: 2011-03-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Plasmin: a potent pro-inflammatory factor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasmin: a potent pro-inflammatory factor
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Plasmin, the central molecule of the plasminogen activator system, is a broad-spectrum serine protease. Plasmin is important for the degradation of fibrin and other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during a number of physiological and pathological processes. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the functional roles of plasmin during pathological inflammation and infection in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. For this purpose, mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), bacterial arthritis, infection, and sepsis have been used.

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that plasminogen-deficient mice are resistant to the development of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA). In contrast, others have shown that plasmin plays a protective role in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). To investigate the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in models of CIA and AIA, a new animal model of arthritis called local injection-induced arthritis (LIA) was developed. In this model, we replaced methylated bovine serum albumin, which is normally used as an immunogen in the AIA model, with collagen type II (CII) to induce arthritis. When wild-type and plasminogen-deficient mice were injected intra-articularly with CII or 0.9% NaCl following CIA induction, plasminogen-deficient mice developed typical CIA, but the disease was less severe than in wild-type mice and was restricted to the injected joints. When the AIA model was used, plasminogen-deficient mice developed a much more severe arthritis than the wild-type mice. These results indicate that both the antigen and joint trauma caused by the local injection are critical to explaining the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in CIA and AIA. This indicates that CIA and AIA have distinct pathogenic mechanisms and plasmin plays contrasting roles in different types of arthritis models.

To study the functional roles of plasmin in the host inflammatory response during infectious arthritis, a Staphylococcus aureus-induced bacterial arthritis model was established. When wild-type mice were injected intra-articularly with 1 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus per joint, all the bacteria were completely eliminated from the injected joints in 28 days. However, in the plasminogen-deficient mice, the S. aureus counts were 27-fold higher at day 28 than at day 0. When human plasminogen was given to the plasminogen-deficient mice daily for 7 days, the bacterial clearance was greatly improved and the necrotic tissue in the joint cavity was also completely eliminated. Supplementation of plasminogen-deficient mice with plasminogen also restored the expression level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the arthritic joints. In summary, plasmin has protective roles during S. aureus-induced arthritis by enhancing cytokine expression, removing necrotic tissue, and mediating bacterial killing and inflammatory cell activation.

The functional roles of plasmin during infection and sepsis were also studied in mice. Infection was induced by injecting 1 × 107 CFU of S. aureus intravenously and the sepsis model was induced by injecting 1.6 × 108 CFU of S. aureus. In the infection model, the wild-type mice had a 25-day survival rate of 86.7%, as compared to 50% in the plasminogen-deficient group. However, when sepsis was induced, the average survival for plasminogen-deficient mice was 3 days longer than for wild-type mice. Twenty-four hours after the induction of sepsis, the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 as well as the bacterial counts in all organs investigated were significantly higher in wild-type mice than in plasminogen-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, blockade of IL-6 by intravenous injection of anti-IL-6 antibodies significantly prolonged the onset of mortality and improved the survival rate during sepsis. These data indicate that plasmin plays different roles during infection and sepsis. Furthermore, plasmin appears to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression during sepsis.

Taken together, our data indicate that plasmin plays multifunctional pro-inflammatory roles in different autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. The pro-inflammatory roles of plasmin include activation of inflammatory cells, regulation of cytokine expression, and enhancement of the bacterial killing ability of the host.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Medicinsk kemi och biofysik, 2008. 52 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1167
Keyword
plasmin, inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, bacterial arthritis, infection, sepsis, cytokine, signal transduction
National Category
Pathobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1607 (URN)978-91-7264-530-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-24, KB3A9, KBC, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-07 Created: 2008-04-07 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved
2. Multifunctional roles of plasmin in inflammation: Studies of animal models on rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, wound healing and infection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifunctional roles of plasmin in inflammation: Studies of animal models on rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, wound healing and infection
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Plasmin has been suggested to be involved in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue remodeling during a number of physiological and pathological processes. The aims of this thesis were to study the functional roles of plasmin during pathological inflammation in autoimmune and nonautoimmune disease models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), wound healing and infection. In order to explain the obtained results in our functional studies as well as some previous results on the functional roles of plasmin during different tissue remodeling processes, I propose that there is a functional correlation between absence of plasmin and an inability to activate complement.

The role of plasminogen during autoimmune collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) was studied first. The data revealed that whereas 83% of wild-type (plg+/+) mice developed CIA, none of the plasminogendeficient (plg-/-) mice got arthritis within a 40-day period. When plg+/+ mice were injected with a mixture of monoclonal antibodies against collagen type II they developed arthritis within a 5-day period, whereas no arthritis could be seen in plg-/- mice, although these mice had normal binding of antibody to the cartilage surface. These data suggest that plasmin plays an essential role in the step between antibody binding and inflammatory cell infiltration during CIA, probably during the step of complement activation. When plg+/+ and plg-/- mice were injected intra-articularly with collagen type II or 0.9% NaCl following CIA induction, plg-/- mice developed typical CIA, but the disease was less severe than in the plg+/+ mice and restricted to the injected joints. Sustained tissue necrosis was found only in the plg-/- mice after the local injection. When the antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model was used, plg-/- mice developed a much more severe arthritis than the plg+/+ mice. These results indicate that different forms of pathogenesis exist for CIA and AIA, and further emphasize the importance of trauma in the induction of CIA in plg-/- mice.

We further investigated the role of plasmin in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an autoimmune disease model for MS. During a 2-month period, the severity, incidence, mean onset day, mean maximal score and mean accumulative score of EAE were essentially identical in plg-/- and plg+/+ mice of B10.Q background. Histopathological studies revealed similar levels of inflammation and demyelination in plg-/- and plg+/+ mice. These data indicate that plasmin does not play an essential role in the development of EAE. The findings that plasmin is essential for the development of CIA but not needed for the development of EAE suggest that plasmin may play a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases where complement activation is critically involved in the pathogenesis.

The role of plasmin was also studied in a tympanic membrane (TM) wound healing model. After TM perforations were performed, the plg+/+ TMs had all healed by day 11, whereas TM healing was completely arrested in plg-/- mice even as late as day 143. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a disturbed inflammation and tissue remodeling pattern in plg-/- mice. These data indicate that plasmin plays a central role in the healing of TM perforations.

The involvement of plasminogen in ear infections was also investigated in plg-/- mice. During an 18-week experimental period, spontaneous otitis media (OM) was essentially developed in all of the plg-/- mice, whereas all of the plg+/+ mice kept a normal TM status. Positive bacterial growth was found in 5 out of 6 plg-/- mice, but only in 1 out of 6 plg+/+ mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed an accumulation of inflammatory cells, fibrin and also other extracellular matrix in the middle-ear cavity and the external-ear canal of plg-/- mice. These results show a spontaneous development of OM in plg-/- mice, but not in plg+/+ controls, suggesting that plasmin plays a critical role in the defense mechanisms during ear infections. Taken together, plasmin appears to play essential roles during autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases in which complement activation is critical in the pathogenesis.

Publisher
80 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 936
Keyword
Plasmin, complement, inflammation, wound healing, infection, autoimmune disease, non-autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, tympanic membrane, otitis media
Research subject
Medical Biochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-422 (URN)
Public defence
2005-02-10, hörsal KB3A9, KBC-huset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2005-01-26 Created: 2005-01-26 Last updated: 2009-11-18Bibliographically approved

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