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School problems or individual shortcomings?: A study of individual educational plans in Sweden
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
2007 (English)In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, Vol. 22, no 1, 75-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 1995 it became mandatory to establish individual educational plans (IEPs) for children with special educational needs in the Swedish compulsory school. On the basis of the pupils' needs, such a plan should contain information about the pupils' school situation and performance, the class, teaching etc. The aim of this article was to study how special educational needs are defined and described and what support measures the school is suggesting, using IEPs from a sample of Swedish compulsory schools. Our study is based on an analysis of IEPs for pupils with special educational needs in the nine-year compulsory school in a municipality in northern Sweden. A strategic selection of three compulsory schools was made and we restricted the study to grades 3, 6 and 9. The method used to analyse the IEPs was content analysis. Using different theories within the field of special education and disability studies, we have tried to discern to what extent the problems described, and the proposed measures (intervention), are related to predetermined theoretical models of disability and special needs education. Our analysis indicates that difficulties are predominantly attributed to the pupils' shortcomings and individual characteristics, and the same holds for the recommended measures. Another interesting finding is that a number of the plans were established without involving the parents, and many of them did not even know that their child had an IEP. Finally, we discuss our findings in relation to different research traditions within the field of special education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge Taylor & Francis Group , 2007. Vol. 22, no 1, 75-91 p.
Keyword [en]
Individual educational plan (IEP), Special educational needs, Special education, Compulsory school, Inclusion
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-6696DOI: 10.1080/08856250601082323OAI: diva2:146366
Available from: 2007-12-17 Created: 2007-12-17 Last updated: 2009-09-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Spänningen mellan normalitet och avvikelse: om skolans insatser för elever i behov av särskilt stöd
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spänningen mellan normalitet och avvikelse: om skolans insatser för elever i behov av särskilt stöd
2009 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, an increasing number of pupils are defined as having some form of difficulties in school. In order to receive special support measures in school, these difficulties must have been subject to a pedagogical examination that state that the pupil is in need of special support measures. This work of identifying and defining difficulties implies that questions about normality and deviance inevitably come into play in school. There has been an increasing demand in school politics to identify these difficulties as early as possible, and this demand has placed further pressure on school personnel in this issue. Furthermore, the personnel’s perspective on the difficulties is also important, i.e., in terms of their origin, because this has importance for the design and content of the special support measures.

The overall aim of this thesis is to analyse the tension between normality and deviance that is manifested in the school’s work procedures for pupils with special educational needs. Related to the overall aim, four overarching research questions are addressed. How have pupils with special educational needs and special education been articulated in national policy documents during recent decades? What perspective on school difficulties are being portrayed in schools’ individual educational plans for pupils with special educational needs? How do school personnel identify and differentiate pupils with special educational needs from “normal” pupils? How do pupils with special educational needs and their parents experience the special support measures that they receive in school and what seems to be the main concern of such support measures?

The thesis consists of four studies that are based on different empirical materials such as policy documents, individual educational plans (IEPs) and qualitative interviews with school personnel, pupils and parents. The methods that are used for analysing the material are policy analysis, content analysis and grounded theory.

The results show that the target group for special support measures has been ascribed with different meanings (over time) in policy documents, something that has affected the recommendations of the support measures and the choice of actors who are assigned to provide such support. Furthermore, the IEPs, as well as the interviews, reveal that an individual perspective on school difficulties seems to be deeply rooted in school.  The identification process of special educational needs followed three models: a pedagogical model, a social model, and a medical/health model.  However, the process of sorting out and defining these pupils invoked ambivalent feelings in the school personnel and the school class usually became the frame of reference for normal or deviant behaviour. Finally, the pupils’ and parent’ main concern of special support measures in school were described as a struggle for recognition and inclusion. The results are discussed with theoretical perspectives on school difficulties and special education. In the concluding discussion, it is argued that pupils with special educational needs have to balance between normality and deviance in school, but also between a pedagogical and a medical discourse by means of having a medical diagnosis in school.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Institutionen för socialt arbete, Umeå universitet, 2009. 102 p.
Studier i socialt arbete vid Umeå universitet : avhandlings- och skriftserie, ISSN 0283-300X ; 64
Pupils with special educational needs, normality and deviance, special education, grounded theory, medical diagnoses, compulsory school, special support measures
National Category
Social Work Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26187 (URN)978-91-7264-857-9 (ISBN)
Socialt arbete, 90187, Umeå
Public defence
2009-10-23, Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, 901 87 Umeå, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-02 Created: 2009-09-29 Last updated: 2009-10-02Bibliographically approved

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