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Seasonal variation of CO2 saturation in the Gulf of Bothnia: Indications of marine net heterotrophy
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). (UMFpub)
Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
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2004 (English)In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 18, 4021-4028 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seasonal variation of pCO2 and primary and bacterioplankton production were measured in the Gulf of Bothnia during an annual cycle. Surface water was supersaturated with CO2 on an annual basis, indicating net heterotrophy and a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, the Gulf of Bothnia oscillated between being a sink and a source of CO2 over the studied period, largely decided by temporal variation in bacterial respiration (BR) and primary production (PP) in the water column above the pycnocline. The calculated annual respiration-production balance (BR-PP) was very similar to the estimated CO2 emission from the Gulf of Bothnia, which indicates that these processes were major determinants of the exchange of CO2 between water and atmosphere. The southern basin (the Bothnian Sea) had a lower net release of CO2 to the atmosphere than the northern Bothnian Bay (7.1 and 9.7 mmol C m−2 d−1, respectively), due to higher primary production, which to a larger extent balanced respiration in this basin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, D.C: American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2004. Vol. 18, 4021-4028 p.
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-7841DOI: 10.1029/2004GB002232OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-7841DiVA: diva2:147512
Available from: 2008-01-13 Created: 2008-01-13 Last updated: 2017-10-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Regulation of carbon dioxide emission from Swedish boreal lakes and the Gulf of Bothnia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulation of carbon dioxide emission from Swedish boreal lakes and the Gulf of Bothnia
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The global carbon cycle is subject to intense research, where sources and sinks for greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide in particular, are estimated for various systems and biomes. Lakes have previously been neglected in carbon balance estimations, but have recently been recognized to be significant net sources of CO2.

This thesis estimates emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from boreal lakes and factors regulating the CO2 saturation from field measurements of CO2 concentration along with a number of chemical, biological and physical parameters. Concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be the most important factor for CO2 saturation in lake water, whereas climatic parameters such as precipitation, temperature and global radiation were less influential. All lakes were supersaturated with and, thus, sources of CO2. Sediment incubation experiments indicated that in-lake mineralization processes during summer stratification mainly occurred in the pelagial. Approximately 10% of the CO2 emitted from the lake surface was produced in epilimnetic sediments.

The mineralization of DOC and emission of CO2 from freshwaters was calculated on a catchment basis for almost 80,000 lakes and 21 major catchments in Sweden, together with rates of sedimentation in lakes and export of organic carbon to the sea. The total export of terrestrial organic carbon to freshwaters could thereby be estimated and consequently also the importance of lakes for the withdrawal of organic carbon export from terrestrial sources to the sea. Lakes removed 30-80% of imported terrestrial organic carbon, and mineralization and CO2 emission were much more important than sedimentation of carbon. The carbon loss was closely related to water retention time, where catchments with short residence times (<1 year) had low carbon retentions, whereas in catchments with long residence times (>3 years) a majority of the imported TOC was removed in the lake systems.

The Gulf of Bothnia was also studied in this thesis and found to be a net heterotrophic system, emitting large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The rate of CO2 emission was depending on the balance between primary production and bacterial respiration, and the system was oscillating between being a source and a sink of CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå universitet, 2005. 24 p.
Keyword
Physical geography and sedimentology, lakes, boreal, Gulf of bothnia, CO2, NEE, DOC, mineralization, sediment, catchment, net heterotrophy, Naturgeografi och sedimentologi
National Category
Physical Geography
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-453 (URN)91-7305-818-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-03-11, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-02-17 Created: 2005-02-17 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved

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Wikner, JohanJansson, Mats

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Algesten, GreteWikner, JohanJansson, Mats
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