Application of sewage sludge to arable land-soil concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls, and their accumulation in earthworms
2002 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, Vol. 21, no 12, 2515-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Soils from five agricultural sites, three research sites, and two privately owned farms were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybronimated diphenylethers (PBDEs). In soils that had not been treated with sludge (reference soils), the international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs) were 0.6 to 1.5 pg/g dry matter (DM) for the PCDD/Fs, which are low compared to generally reported background soil levels in Europe. The concentrations of sum of six penta- and hexa-PCBs were 450 to 1,400 pg/g DM. The PBDEs 47 and 99 dominated among the tri- to hepta-PBDEs analyzed (8-80 pg/g DM). The impact of adding 1 to 3 tonnes of sludge (DM) per hectare per year on the concentrations was studied at the three research sites by calculating ratios of the compounds in sludge-treated soil to reference soil (S/R ratio). The concentrations of I-TEQs did not increase in the sludge-treated soil, whereas the S/R ratios for PBDEs were greater than one. Also, although the PCB contents were higher in the sludge-treated soils, the background sources were more important for the concentrations of PCBs than of PBDEs. The largest increase in the S/R ratios was found at a private farm where large amounts of sludge had been used in the past. Accumulation of the compounds in earthworms from the sites also was investigated. The biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of the tested compounds declined in the following order: ortho-PCBs similar to PBDEs > non-ortho-PCBs > 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs. The average BSAF for ortho-PCBs was five (organic matter/lipids), and the lowest BSAFs (0.1-0.8) found were for octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To our knowledge, accumulation of PBDEs in earthworms has not been published previously.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 21, no 12, 2515-25 p.
sewage sludge, soil, earthworms, accumulation, organohalogens
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-8839OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-8839DiVA: diva2:148510